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Agriculture of Pakistan - Essay - 1167 Words

    • DECLINE IN THE RATE OF AGRICULTURE GROWTH IS LARGELY DUE TO GOVERNMENT’S NEGLECT AND POLICIES TOWARDS AGRICULTURE

      The economy of every country is mainly dependent on three major sectors, which are agriculture, industries and commerce respectively.
      All these sectors are somehow or the other interlinked with each other.
      It is the agriculture sector which becomes responsible for providing the necessary raw material to industrial sector of the economy. As the development of textile industry and its allied fields is entirely attributed to a fairly large cotton production in the country. Again the development of sugar industry also depends upon the availability of sugar - cane in the country. Above all, the agro - based industries can be established on the basis of the locally produced raw material Importance Agriculture Pakistan.

      This means, that progress or underdevelopment of one sector may have some significant effects on the other sectors indirectly. The state of Pakistan, due to its geographical location and seasonal changes is regarded optimum for agricultural development.
      The countries like Pakistan which have a vast agriculture sector can depend upon exportation of agriculture products like cotton, sugar, rice, vegetables, fruits and certain seeds etc. Accordingly, a sufficient amount of foreign exchange can be earned through the exportation of these agriculture goods. Such foreign exchange can be utilized to import the necessary machinery and plants etc. which will be helpful in accelerating the pace of economic development. Moreover, the agriculture exports by the agriculture countries will be in accordance with the principle of comparative advantage — an optimal utilization of world’s resources. Again, the agriculture exports will be helpful in easing the BOP difficulties of a country like Pakistan. At present 45% of foreign exchange is earned through agriculture exports.

      And since Pakistan is an agricultural country, so the profits gained by this particular sector is of much more significance than other sectors of economical development. The agriculture sector in Pakistan is of much importance as it ensures provision of necessary food to its people.
      The industrial development is based upon agriculture sector. Particularly, it is the agriculture sector which provides manpower for the sake of industrialization. The development economists like Lewis and Ranis etc are of the view that agriculture sector of developing countries is mostly over - saturated. It means that more than the required number of people are employed in the agriculture sector having zero and negative marginal productivity. Even if they are removed, the total agriculture production will remain unaffected However,such withdrawn labor can be employed to start industrialization in the country. Moreover, Lewis says, if the parents of withdrawn labor continue feeding them , the wages earned by such labor can be used to re-invest Importance Agriculture Pakistan.

      Along with this, it also provides the necessary raw material for many industries of the country which majorly deal with the production of food products directly or indirectly and also is the basis of trade between countries all over the world.
      The Agricultural Problems And Importance In Pakistan lays in this fact that it is multifarious as feeds the local people, provide raw material for industrial purposes and is one of the major constituent of the country’s foreign trade. It is being observed that the foreign exchanges earned through the export of agricultural products are about 45% of the total exports of Pakistan. The sector of agriculture contributes to up to 26% of the total GDP and almost 52% of the total population of Pakistan is earning their living from this respective sector. This sector carries immense importance and can be denoted as the backbone of the Pakistan economy, but still unfortunately this sector is exploited due to several reasons. Government, monopoly of foreign companies and dis loyalty in the nation is responsible for this cause. Soil erosion is one of the most critical problems as no specific mechanism is adopted to eliminate soil erosion which is continuously decreasing the fertility of the land.

      (W F. Hall, 1965)

      The statistics provide the necessary information and makes it quite evident that how much importance does the agriculture sector has in developing the economy of Pakistan. According to the study of R. Faruqee (1999), the foreign exchange that is earned every year by agricultural exports is approximately 45% of the entire exports of Pakistan. This is really a significant percentage, backing up the fact that it contributes 26% of the GDP of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan every year.
      The magnanimity of the agricultural problems in Pakistan has undoubtedly crippled the economy. In 1947, agriculture’s contribution of GDP was 53% that has shrunken down to 21% last year. Pakistan has great agricultural potential because of its alluvial soils. However, it is producing almost 50% below its potential. Neighboring India and Bangladesh have shown significant improvement in their agriculture sector unlike Pakistan. Where China is growing padi crops in Gobi desert, Pakistan is still relying on perennial canal system of irrigation. Let us make an attempt to study the agricultural profile of Pakistan followed by a brief discussion on problems in this sector.

      Another important point to clarify the significance of agricultural sector in Pakistan is that of the fact that 52% of total population of the country, directly or indirectly, earns its livelihood through agriculture.
      The countries like Pakistan which have a limited industrial set-up, the agriculture sector serves as a source of big employment in the country. Agriculture is a primitive and traditional profession since centuries. Accordingly, the people, even having no skill are easily adjusted on lands to earn livelihood for their parents and offsprings. As for as Pakistan is concerned, it is predominantly a rural country with 69% of its population living in villages, majority of which is directly dependent on agriculture for livelihood Importance Agriculture Pakistan.

      Of course, it could be understood by the fact that a major portion of the population of the country, 67.5% to be exact, are living in the rural areas of the country...
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      • Agriculture of Pakistan Essay ...Agriculture is a vital sector of Pakistan's economy and accounted for 25.9 percent of GDP in 1999-2000, according to government estimates. The sector directly supports three-quarters of the country's population, employs half the labor force , and contributes a large share of foreign exchange earnings.
      The main agricultural products are cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, and vegetables, in addition to milk, beef, mutton, and eggs.
      Total land area of Pakistan is 96.9% and 3.1% is constituted of water bodies. Total cropped area of Pakistan is 23.04 million hectors. 90% of the land is irrigated and only remaining 10% is rain fed. In Pakistan, Intensive Subsistence Farming is largely practiced Use of fertilizers and pesticides; and techniques of crop rotation are practiced widely in order to have larger yield. Among major crops of the country there is wet padi and wheat. Cash crops include cotton, sugarcane, maize, jute, tobacco, citrus fruits, mangoes etc. Almost 44% of the labor is involved in it and almost 64.5% of the population is still rural in nature. Due to 2010 floods, agriculture sector showed overall growth of 1.2% where as major crops showed negative growth of 4% during year 2010 - 2011.

      Pakistan depends on one of the world's largest irrigation systems to support production. There are 2 principal seasons. Cotton, rice, and sugarcane are produced during the kharif season, which lasts from May to November.
      The agriculture sector — the greatest gift of Nature possesses greater potentialities to exploit. According to an estimate in 1990 - 91 the national yield of wheat was 1841 kg per hectare which is far below the potential yield which has been estimated at 6425 kg per hectare. Again, in case of sugar-cane the potential is estimated at 258583 kg per hectare while the actual production of sugarcane in 1991 was 40700 kg per hectare.Such a big discrepancy in the potential and actual agriculture outputs shows that with better organizational and management of the agriculture sector and large scale adoption of technologies, there exist the scope of greater increase in agriculture outputs — thus meeting the requirements of rising population Importance Agriculture Pakistan.

      Wheat is the major rabi crop, which extends from November to April. The key to a much-needed improvement of productivity lies in a more efficient use of resources, principally land and water. However, change is dependent on the large landowners who own 40 percent of the arable land and control most of the irrigation system, which makes widespread reform difficult.
      During Ayub’s era, first time land reforms was practiced. Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto introduced more reforms in 1972. The Law Reforms Act 1977 was also enforced by Bhutto’s regime. The most important change was that individual holdings, including shares in shamilat, if any, in excess of 100 acres of irrigated land or 200 acres of un-irrigated land. Furthermore, notwithstanding the above, no land holding could be greater than an area equivalent to 8,000 PIU. However, these laws were declared in contradiction to Islam and have ceased to be in effect since 1990. Thus, absence of land reforms has always caused a lot of damage to the agricultural sector of Pakistan.

      Assessments by independent agencies, including the World Bank, show these large landholdings to be very unproductive. Pakistan is a net importer of agricultural commodities. Annual imports total about US$2 billion and include wheat, edible oils, pulses, and consumer foods.
      It is the agriculture sector which is responsible for making the availability of food possible in the country. The country whose population is rising at the rate, of 3% per annum and which is the 7th biggest country in the world on the basis of its population, it is the agriculture which is serving as a last resort. It is providing wheat, rice vegetables and edible oils to the existing population as well as new entrants in the population’. In case a country lacks agriculture sector or it is sluggish one, the foodstuff will have to be imported having a negative impact On BOP of the country.

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    • Agriculture in Pakistan Essay ...entire population above the poverty line by the year 2006-07, Pakistan needs to create additional employment for 100 million persons and raise the incomes of millions of under-employed persons. This report presents a program to achieve these goals utilizing the country's competitive advantage in labour-intensive agricultural crops and allied industries.
      In Pakistan, construction of water reservoirs has become a matter of political tussle. Due to which construction of dams has been in halt since last major project of Terbela. Indus Basin Treaty 1960 has failed to stop India from constructing water reservoirs on the channels flowing to Pakistan. However, Pakistan consistently failed to establish its view point on international forums. The present canal water is not effectively used in our irrigation system. 25% - 35% losses of water are recorded out of total applied to fields. Out of 142 MAF, total quantum of water available to crops is only 42 MAF. Due to shortage of canal water farmers have to use tube well water. This water is brackish and having higher concentration of different salts and enhances the problem of soil salinity.

      Misfortunes can happen to some very good products. One of the major reasons for such mishappenings, is that industries and organizations fail to realize the importance of a well-planned process of new or existing product development.
      The irrigation system in Pakistan is not up to prescribed standards which results in heavy water wastage causing water shortage. Most of the farmers are using old and traditional means of cultivation and harvesting which reduces the efficiency in the process ultimately decreasing per acre yield while in other countries like Nepal, India and Bangladesh are using modern techniques resulting in high productivity. Another major issue is that no real focus is made by the government in educating the farmers, as they are not aware of various processes and perceptional measures.

      They do not acknowledge that “ change is the only constant thing in this world” and as trends change it is important to change their products along with it too. The objectives of the program are to double agricultural production in ten years, achieve complete nutritional self-sufficiency for the country, and generate millions in exports of sugar, fruits, vegetables, silk and cotton textiles.
      Pakistan is a cluster of more than 170 million people. Though Pakistan is the most urbanized country in South Asia, yet it is an agrarian economy. Fluctuating policies, influx of MNCs and private sector have forced the rural labor to find better economic opportunities in urban centers. But unfortunately, they have added to the poverty only. Pakistan is suffering from energy and water shortage and food inflation has been touching double figures. Realizing these ground realities Pakistan needs to look seriously in to its agricultural problems. 2010 floods played havoc with the agricultural lands. Changing climatic conditions; rise in temperature and changing patterns of rainfall are also adding to the agricultural problems. No matter how long lived and deep rooted are the problems of agriculture in Pakistan, they can be solved with due deliberation in to them.

      The program will generate a minimum growth rate of more than 4% in the agricultural sector. New changes, are the lifeblood of companies. When firms do not change their level of production to meet the requirements of changing consumer desires, government regulations completion and a host of other factors: market share and profit usually decline.
      The marketing facilities for agricultural products in Pakistan are still far from satisfactory level. Our cultivators can not get just prices for their produce due to defective marketing organization. Moreover, the chain of middle men between the producers and ultimate consumers take a heavy share of their produce .Thus the cultivators do not take much real interest in increasing their product too. Hoarding and smuggling has become a culture. Creating farce crisis and causing price hike has become a routine matter. That benefits only middle men; both producer and consumer suffer badly due to this. Lack of proper check and balance and accountability is a fundamental feature of lack of good governance in Pakistan. This is also effecting agriculture sector as well.

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      Pakistan fell back in to the clutches of IMF after the change of regime back in 2008. Since then IMF has told Pakistan to reduce agricultural subsidies and impose agriculture tax. Therefore, Pakistan fails to practice a long term policy whether of flexi loans, subsidies or of agriculture tax. Moreover, Pakistan is a WTO signatory as well; therefore, she has to follow those compulsions as well. In the wake of these challenges of international nature, farmer of Pakistan that is illiterate, less equipped, under trained and technologically poor can only rely on policies of government to protect and grow them. Therefore, weak and inconsistent policies of consecutive governments in Pakistan have caused serious problems to Pakistan’s agriculture sector.

      To what extent this statement is true with reference to Pakistan? Write a comprehensive essay. Agriculture in Pakistan(achievements) * Pakistan ranks eighth worldwide in farm output, according to the List of countries by GDP sector * The most important crops are wheat, sugarcane, cotton, and rice, which together account for more than 75% of the value of total crop output.
      Are you looking for Agricultural Problems And Importance In Pakistan as Pakistan is a developing country whose economy is not that much stable as other countries have. A large proportion of our economy heavily relies on agriculture. By agriculture we mean producing from land through farming and cultivation. Pakistan is an agricultural country having a total area of 7, 96,096 square kilometers out of which almost 25% of the area is under cultivation. Approximately 70% of the total population is living in villages where their main source of income is through agriculture. In a census held in 1950-51 it was stated that 66% of the total workforce of Pakistan is employed in the agriculture sector, which later in 1999-2000 decreased to 47.3% showing how people are becoming least interested to indulge themselves in this sector.

      * Pakistan's largest food crop is wheat. In 2005, Pakistan produced 21,591,400 metric tons of wheat, more than all of Africa (20,304,585 metric tons) and nearly as much as all of South America (24,557,784 metric tons), according to the FAO.
      The agricultural activities are to be performed in rural areas, but most of villages in Pakistan have no road or railway links with markets. So, farmers have to face innumerable hardships to sell their products. Pakistan is also facing grain storage problems at large scale throughout the country. The people often store their grains in godowns, which cause time to time damage to the seed. Thus, hundreds of thousand of tones of crops have to be stored in temporary facilities that afforded inadequate protection and pilferage. The hazards may occur because of improper ventilation, lack of control over temperature and humidity, high moisture content in seeds, lack of control over rain due to broken walls, floors and ceilings, spoil and un-cleaned godowns, lack of spray and fumigation etc. That results in increase number of dormant seeds, sprouting and rotting, increase of insect damage and bird contamination.

      The country is expected to harvest 25 to 23 million tons of wheat in 2012. * Pakistan has also cut the use of dangerous pesticides dramatically * Pakistan is a net food exporter, except in occasional years when its harvest is adversely affected by droughts. Pakistan exports rice, cotton, fish, fruits (especially Oranges and Mangoes), and vegetables and imports vegetable oil, wheat, pulses and consumer foods.
      Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan and Almighty Allah has deeply blessed it with this gift. 75% population of Pakistan are living in the rural areas and depend upon agriculture. The farmers of Pakistan play vital role in its agriculture sector as well as economy. Prosperity and success of Pakistan depends on the struggle of farmers. We all must respect them and help them in sale/ purchase of their products/ goods in good price because they are growing grains and vegetable for us.

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      In our economy agriculture sector plays a very dominant role by making a greater contribution to the GDP of the country. As in case of Pakistan the contribution of agriculture to GDP is about 24%.It means
      that despite structural changes in the economy, the share of agriculture is still at the top amongst all other sectors of the economy.

      In the early time period it considered a dominant sector but due to the declining its performance due to the political, social, environmental and climate conditions its production yield goes down gradually and now it is the second largest sector in Pakistan.
      Farmers get up early in the morning and going to fields along with their bulls for ploughing the land. They takes their breakfast in the field and then started their work in the fields. Most of them consume their lunch in the field. The breakfast and lunch are brought to fields by the members of their family. This method was adopted in the past. In the modern era, farmers are using machinery for making fields, cultivation and harvesting, which has reduced their hard work and also enhanced their products.

      It accounting for over 21% of GDP, 45% of total labour force engaged with this sector. Around 63% of country population live in rural areas is indirectly or directly linked with this sector for their livelihood.
      The only way of communication in rural areas for these Agricultural Problems And Importance In Pakistan is television or radio which is not that much effective. Small farms are increasing which disables them to get facilitated from the credit policies of the government. The pesticide companies have formulated partnerships with the World Bank and due to IMF policies they are selling expensive fertilizers and pesticides to the poor farmers which are breaking their backbone and leaving them helpless. If these Agricultural Problems And Importance In Pakistan are not resolved at emergency basis Pakistan economy can be in great danger and a living threat of losing one of their major sources of income and economy can go in vein.

      Agriculture sector have strong linkage with the rest of the economy that is unnoticed in statistics. While on the Other hand, it is the primary supplier of raw materials to downstream industry, that contributing significantly to Pakistan’s export, it is the largest market for industrial manufactured goods such as pesticides, fertilizers, tractors and agriculture equipments.
      For a long time, this has been a view that the terms of trade have a tendency to move against agriculture sector,i.e. the prices of agriculture commodities go on falling while the prices of industrial goods go on rising. But now a days, because of severe increase in population of the world the demand for agriculture goods including crops, horticulture, livestock, forestry and fisheries is rapidly increasing. And in the coming future, the demand for agriculture goods is not likely to come down. This means that agriculture sector will occupy a strategic importance in the days to come. The food - stuff can be used as a weapon like oil to put a pressure in the world politics. Moreover, the self - sufficiency in food - stuff and its related fields will also be helpful in making an assurance regarding food security Importance Agriculture Pakistan.

      The object of Agriculture has changed from “self-reliance” to “Commercialization” and this is called Economic operation in Agriculture. Farming supplies is now being changed instead to individual benefits but as exchange commercial business.
      There are only five universities in Pakistan and around 15 research centers related to agriculture. Research conducted, techniques taught and skills imparted in these institutions rarely reach at the level of small farmers. Farmers need to know how to make optimum use of land. How to use fertilizers and pesticides and what amount of water is exactly useful and necessary for any crop. Techniques to fight water logging, old irrigation system and low yield must also be learnt. For instance, if take example of using fertilizers in Pakistan, per hector usage of NPK is 170 kg, but the recommended is 300 kg per hector. Hence, in fertilizer application problem is poor nutrition application and incorrect fertilizer case. Lack of management on the part of farmer is a huge problem.

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      About 25% of Pakistan's total land area is under cultivation and is watered by one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. Pakistan irrigates three times more acres than Russia. Agriculture accounts for about 21.2% of GDP and employs about 43% of the labor force. In Pakistan, the most agricultural province is Punjab where wheat and cotton are the most grown.
      Pakistani farmers are our assets and we must require to look after them. Government should also require to make some reforms in agriculture sector. They should be given direct access in the local and international markets in order to improve their products and living standard.

      Some people also have mango orchards but due to some problems like weather, they're not found in a big range. Agriculture and land use in Pakistan. (Only major crops) Agriculture and land use in Pakistan. (Only major crops) Early History Mango Orchard in Multan, Pakistan Mango Orchard in Multan, Pakistan Barley and wheat cultivation—along with the domestication of cattle, primarily sheep and goat-was visible in Mehrgarh by 8000-6000 BCE. They cultivated six-row barley, einkorn and emmer wheat, jujubes and dates, and herded sheep, goats and cattle.
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      Wars were sparked from overstepped territorial boundaries. Also, the creation of government was commenced as a result of hierarchy issues. Even though the issues on the surface can weigh down the positives, agriculture, at its core, has improved human lives and led to the development of the working/manageable lifestyles we have today.
      Farmers lives a very simple life. Their clothes have a rural flair and lives in a mud-house, though many farmers of Punjab, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have built Pucca houses as well. Their property comprises of few bulls, a plough-share and a few acres of land. Most of them are living from hand to mouth.

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      Almost 90% to 97% of showers in Pakistan are received during summer monsoon season. Very few showers are received during winters. Droughts and floods formulate a permanent feature of the area. Pakistan receives seasonal showers due to which most of the agricultural land must be irrigated and agricultural output is largely affected by the climatic variations and global warming.

      As the performance of agriculture sector dependent upon weather condition, timely availability of input (water). During 2012-13 weather condition and water situation has an impact on these Kharif crops that paved the way for decrease in output of rice and cotton crops.
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    • Agriculture in Pakistan Essay ...Agriculture in Pakistan Farming is Pakistan's largest economic activity. In FY 1993, agriculture, and small-scale forestry and fishing, contributed 25 percent of GDP and employed 48 percent of the labor force. Agricultural products, especially cotton yarn, cotton cloth, raw cotton, and rice, are important exports.
      Less than 4% of land in Pakistan is forested and rate of deforestation is around 3%. From northern highlands to the coastline of Karachi, Pakistan has diverse range of forests from coniferous to mangroves respectively. However, deforestation is the result of increased and unplanned urbanization. Therefore, expanding urban units grow at the cost of trees. This is not only causing environmental hazards, but also accentuating the impacts of global warming.

      Although there is agricultural activity in all areas of Pakistan, most crops are grown in the Indus River plain in Punjab and Sindh. Considerable development and expansion of output has occurred since the early 1960s; however, the country is still far from realizing the large potential yield that the well-irrigated and fertile soil from the Indus irrigation system could produce. The floods of September 1992 showed how vulnerable agriculture is to weather; agricultural production dropped dramatically in FY 1993. Land Use Pakistan's total land area is about 803,940 square kilometers. About 48 million hectares, or 60 percent, is often classified as unusable for forestry or agriculture consists mostly of deserts, mountain slopes, and urban settlements. Some authorities, however, include part of this area as agricultural land on the basis that it would support some livestock activity even though it is poor rangeland. Thus, estimates of grazing land vary widely--between 10 percent and 70 percent of the total area. A broad interpretation, for example, categorizes almost all of arid...

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