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Aquaculture And Fishing Industries Environmental Sciences Essay

Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015

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Extensive aquaculture on the other hand, does not involved controlled environments since it only requires the natural habitat. In other words, it is fish breeding or farming using the natural environment. It is done through creation of fish pens on sea sides or other water bodies. In these natural habitats, the fish that would be subjected to farming was confined in a net or poles or stones.

What are aquaculture and fishing industries? Aquaculture is the art, science and business of rearing aquatic organisms in fresh or marine water under controlled or semi-controlled conditions. The fishing industry activity concerned with culturing, processing, preserving and marketing of fish and fish products.

To insure sustainability, the marine park must always be preserved and protected. Thus, fishing in such area must not be permitted. Aquaculture must be encouraged to promote the development of the fishing industry and increase the market.

Next, there are many types of aquaculture. For example, types of aquaculture are extensive farming or cage farming and intensive aquaculture. Furthermore, the types of fishing industries includes commercial fishing, fish farming, fish processing, fish products and fish marketing.

Aquaculture is mainly about increasing the production of fish through farming. Fish was a well-known source of iodine and protein which is popular to coastal regions. Aquaculture helped to extend the number of fish available to the market along with the places that it can reach. This was believed to exist way back the 5th century B.C. upon the writings of the early Chinese civilization. Aquaculture was growing to become popular and effective since technology have been increasing. There were two known types of aquaculture, the intensive and the extensive aquaculture.

Besides of types of aquaculture, there are also includes methods of aquaculture. Examples for methods of aquaculture involved open net pens or cages, ponds, raceways, recirculation systems and shellfish culture.

In order to protect the environment, those who conduct intensive aquaculture should also set a program that involves hydroponics which could alleviate the problems of eutrophication and hypernutrification in the area. Those who are conducting exclusive aquaculture could create fish pens outside the marine parks. The EPA must provide specific provisions on the distance between the fish pens and the limitation in production per area.

However examples for methods of fishing industries included pole/troll fishermen, purse seining, gillnetting, traps and pots, harpooning and trolling.

Aquaculture and fishing industries are considered as developing sectors in Malaysia.

These industries are contributed to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), economic growth and providing jobs opportunity to communities as well as to enhance the welfare and quality of life.
With respect to the case of the snapper, it should undergo inclusive aquaculture since it is a bottom dweller and since it is a prize fish. It needs an appropriate habitat very similar to the marine park. It needs the appropriate amount of temperature and proper nutrients that could have been available only in certain parts of the archipelago and thus, a high technology and a controlled environment could be the answer to be able to increase the production of such prize fish.

Aquaculture is the art, science and business of rearing aquatic organisms in fresh or marine water under controlled or semi-controlled conditions. Furthermore, the definition of aquaculture can be break down to two components such as the term 'aquatic' refers to a variety of water environments which including freshwater, brackish water and marine and the term of 'Aquatic organisms' that means the interest with regard to human food include a wide variety of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates.

The Environmental Protection Authority or the EPA has been operating on conducting a strategic environmental impact assessment. Basically EPA would like to upheld sustainability, having both the capacity to consume resources while promoting environmental protection at the same time. In a coastal archipelago which includes a marine park where anchovies and bottom dwelling prize fish such as snapper thrives, it is important for the EPA to take note on how sustainability could be attain in the given situation and what are the issues that needs to be prioritize.

Aquaculture also is the farming of freshwater and saltwater organisms such as finfish, mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic plants. It is also known as aqua farming. For examples, aquaculture involves cultivating aquatic populations under controlled conditions and contrasted with commercial fishing which is the harvesting of wild fish.

Although extensive aquaculture seems to be more environment friendly than its counterpart, it actually poses a greater threat to the environment since it destroys the natural habitat. It also increases competition for the limited resources available in the natural habitat when the fish manages to escaped most likely due to weather changes and destructive storms.

1.3 Type of Aquaculture

There are two general types of fish farming which are extensive farming and intensive farming.

What is extensive farming. Extensive farming means the farming which is easier to set up and maintain because no need for advanced water quality control systems.

Since intensive aquaculture provides almost a perfect environment for a certain species. It produces high yields or production. This had help in generating more income and supply for the market. Thus, intensive aquaculture is a great business opportunity.

Ocean waters near the shore with good tidal flushing are the place that most suitable for extensive farming. However, reliance on nature for water management make environmental problems happened. For example, the algae bloom is happened by concentrated waste and nutrients.
Black, K.D. (2001). Environmental impacts of aquaculture. Sheffield Academic Press,U.K.

The ways to prevent and reduce the risks to the environment are more exposed sites and attention to cage density can be establish for those countries that have the species already native in that area.

Another type of aquaculture is intensive aquaculture.

The EPA must concentrate on how biodiversity could be protected and how sustainability could be achieved. Thus, it is important for the EPA to provide information on the importance of the marine parks and the necessity of aquaculture in the area. It is then also an obligation of EPA to ensure that those who practice aquaculture would not cause severe harm to the environment. Thus, they must regularly check whether their provisions regarding aquaculture were implemented.

Intensive aquaculture encourages the use of intensive and closed-loop systems for aquaculture. In these systems, almost all the water is recycled with at most 5%-10% of water being replaced each day. Furthermore, as the water is in a closed loop, the waste from the fish will not impact the surrounding environments.
Pillay, T.V.R. (1992). Aquaculture and the environment. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

The ability to stack shallow tanks makes intensive farming particularly well suited to flat fish such as flounder. The primary downside is the complexity of the recycling systems. However, intensive aquaculture also provides an opportunity for landlocked nations to become involved and stacking tanks that allows for large numbers of fish in a single facility.
Aquaculture is the way of the future. As ocean organisms numbers are decreasing rapidly due to the mouthes of humans and the population of humans is rising dromatically there is only one soulotion that is aquaculture. The purpose of this report is to explain the outlines of team multistrand science growing facility. Barramundi are protoandrous hermaphrodites which in English states that they start life as males, reaching maturity at around 3 to 4 years of age and later change SEX and become chicks, usually at around age 5 they live best in water temperatures at 26-30 degrees. Small fish are almost exclusively male with the percentage of females increasing with overall length.

1.4 Methods of Aquaculture

There are five methods of aquaculture that included by open net pens or cages, ponds, raceways, recirculation systems and shellfish culture.

Firstly, Salmon, the fish enclose in open net pens or cages that mostly exist in offshore coastal areas or in freshwater lakes.

Aquaculture is the nurturing of sweet water or sea water animals and plants. Aquaculture has amplified in level over the last 50 years; moreover it is supposed to be the supply of 40 % of fish production to the world. Even though its scale is narrow to definite commercialized fish.

The high-impact aquaculture method commonly refers to net pens. This is because the waste from the fish can passes freely into the surrounding environment and contaminate wild habitat. Farmed fish can flee and compete the natural resources with wild fish or interbreed with wild fish of the same species that will compromise the wild population.
Aquaculture is a good idea to preserve the lives inside water. This can help balance the food supply in this world. More than a half of population of this world is a non-vegetarian. These people eat fishes and other living organisms. The entire food cycle will get disturbed if the aquaculture is not preserved. If aquaculture is not maintained at the right time, the whole world will face a huge disturbance in the food cycle. This life must be preserve at the right time and this can help the world to maintain food cycle. Aquaculture is a good inspiration to preserve lives inside water.

For examples, diseases and parasites can spread to wild fish through swimming past net pens.

Next, ponds is the place that enclose fish in a coastal or inland body of fresh or salt water. This manner is use to raise shrimp, catfish and tilapia.

Aquaculture refers to the farming of aquatic animals and plants, such as fish, shrimp, molluscs and sea weeds in water. It can be classified under two major heads—freshwater and coastal.

After that, wastewater can be contained and treated. The surrounding environment and groundwater can be polluted by the discharge of untreated wastewater from the ponds. Moreover, the construction of shrimp ponds in mangrove forests has destroyed more than 3.7 million acres of coastal habitat important to fish, birds and humans.

Raceways allow farmers convert water from a waterway, like a stream or well and to make it easily flows through channels that containing fish.

With the development of more commercial hatcheries, a phenomenal increase in the area under shrimp farming occurred. The formation of Brackish-water Fish Farmers’ Development Agencies (BFDA) in the maritime states and the implementation of various government programme to provide support to the shrimp farming sector assisted with its further development.

Furthermore, farmers usually diverting it back into a natural waterway after treating the water. If the farmers untreated the water, wastewater from the raceways can affect waterways and spread out disease.
Extensive Aquaculture depends on the environment in which the fish pens are. This means that when the surrounding environment develops a problem, the problem or changes would greatly affect the production of the fish pens. The environment and habitat of the fish or the species could vary and is unstable which may lead to diseases and death.

Farmed fish can potentially escape and compete with wild fish for natural resources. Besides this, escaped fish can interbreed with wild fish of the same species which lead the health of wild population at risk.
Water quality management includes all physical, chemical and biological factors, and these influence survival, growth, health and production offish in the ponds. Water quality is environment related and inputs such as liming for sanitation and correction of hydrogen ion concentration, fertilisation stocking and feeding interact with the pond environment. Indian coastal areas have varied agro-climatic conditions and pond management needs to take all factors into consideration.

Recirculation systems raise fish in the tanks where the water must be treated and recycled through this system. All the types of finfish species like striped bass, salmon and sturgeon can be raised in recirculation systems.

The brackish-water aquaculture sector is mainly supported by shrimp production as well as giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), which are responsible for the bulk of production followed by the Indian white prawn, P. indicus. Although India possesses several other potential species of finfish and shellfish, production of these is still very low.

Recirculation systems can address many environmental concerns associated with fish farming in which fish cannot escape and wastewater is treated. However, the costs of treatment for wastewater are expensive and very rely on electricity or other power sources.
Since anchovies are valuable for their meat, an exclusive aquaculture might help in the propagation of the species. However, such aquaculture activities must be done outside the marine parks in able to protect the natural habitat of the snapper.

Shellfish culture means that the types of shellfish such as oysters, mussels, and clams can grow on beaches or suspend them in water by ropes, plastic trays or mesh bags. Mostly, farmers use filter feeders and clean water to thrive.

Paddy-cum-fish culture is undertaken in medium to semi-deep-water rice paddy fields in lowland areas with fairly strong dykes to prevent the escape of cultivated fish during floods; trenches and pond refuges in the paddy fields provide shelter for the fish. While the system mostly relies on natural stocking, modern farming techniques involving major and minor carps stocked at the densities of 5,000—10,000/ha alongside freshwater prawn are also practised in several areas.

This is because filter feeders can filter excess nutrients out of the water but the farming shellfish with high densities in areas with tidal flow can lead the waste accumulated.

1.5 Species Groups

Species groups of aquaculture include finfish, shellfish, crustaceans, echinoderms and algae.

The farming of finfish consider as the most common in aquaculture because it raised fish in tanks, ponds or ocean with the main purpose that is to meet the demand for food.

Seafarming refers to culture of organisms in cages, pens, rafts and long-lines in the open coastal waters and bays, whereas brackish water aquaculture relates to land-based farming systems using salt water from the estuaries and creeks as also from the sea in coastal areas. Coastal aquaculture uses many common species of fish, shrimps and molluscs.

Fish hatchery is an adoption that used to release immature fish into the wild for recreational fishing. For examples, salmon, carp, tilapia, catfish and cod are the types of fish hatchery.

Secondly, abalone and oyster farming is the types of shellfish farming.

CMFRI also took the lead in the development of the technology required for edible oyster farming during the 1970s. Intensive researches on various aspects of the culture of the Indian backwater oyster (Crassostrea madrasensis) have been made, and technology has also been developed for the hatchery production of seed.

Abalone farming began in the late 1950s and early 1960s in Japan and China. Since the mid-1990s, this industry has become increasingly successful. Next, over-fishing and poaching have reduced wild populations to the extent that farmed abalone now supplies the most abalone meat.
Intensive aquaculture is briefly about the use of high and modern technology to aid in the production of fish. It is in this area of aquaculture that fishes are breed in a controlled environment thus a high specialization about the natural habitat and the ways in which the species to be breed was needed. It requires appropriate understanding on the oxygen level and the temperature that the fish would most likely need to be able to survive. It is also important to understand how to control the environment to promote the survival of the species and reduce diseases and death. Intensive aquaculture aims that a certain species or for a group of species to become available throughout the whole year. This is important because there are certain specie that migrates during certain period, others would have experienced early death or diseases which could reduce the usual supply of such species in the area.

Thirdly, crustacean farming involve shrimp farming and fresh water prawn farming. Virtually all farmed shrimp are penaeids (shrimp of the family Penaeide). There are two species of shrimp that involved the Penaeus vannamei (Pacific white shrimp) and the Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn) account for roughly 80% of all farmed shrimp.

Nature is not only limited to beautiful hills or mountains but it involves entire things that have not been created by man. Aquatic life is one among these beauties of nature. There is another world inside water which is named as aquatic life by humans.

These industrial monocultures are very susceptible to disease which has decimated shrimp populations across entire regions.

Echinoderm farming is one of the methods of aquaculture. Commercially harvested echinoderms include sea cucumbers and sea urchins.

Another issue that must be look upon is the market that is present for the species that thrives in the area. Species that are of high market value should be studied to be able to protect its habitat and if possible to breed and farm them. This would increase commerce as well as the number of the species in the area.

For examples, sea cucumbers are farmed in articial ponds as large as 1,000 acres (400 ha) in China.

Last but not least, algae farming such as microalgae also referred to as phytoplankton, microphyte or planktonic algae constitute the majority of cultivater algae and macroalgae that commonly known as seaweed.

In India, commercial cultivation of brackish- water finfish is almost non-existent, though experiments on monoculture as well as the polyculture of milkfish, pearl-spot, mullets and sand whiting have shown their potential for farming.

Despite seaweeds have many commercial and industrial uses but they are not easily cultivated on a large scale.

1.6 Benefits of Aquaculture

The benefits can be categorized into three general types that are economic, social and environmental. In the case of aquaculture, the potential for financial gains was the initial cause of growth in the industry.

The preserving actions for these aquatic animals can turn out to be fruitful for future. Many companies support fish farms. These fish farms can contribute to an increase in the population of living beings. These farms can preserve the sea life. These farms are quite useful and thus many people also provide their support for such fish farms. People prefer to eat fishes and other non-vegetable items in their food. This is not good news for aquaculture. There is a huge decline in the aquatic lives because of this. Number of fish species is getting depleted day by day. Therefore it is important to maintain death to growth ratio of fishes.

Social and environmental benefits are also being totaled as valid reasons for growing aquaculture sector in the United States.

First of all, economic benefits gain from aquaculture. The income of country is generated for the communities and countries by aquaculture.

Sewage-fed fish culture and rice paddy-cum- fish culture are two important culture systems practised in certain areas of the country; sewage- fed fish culture in bheries in West Bengal is an old practice. The culture system usually involves multiple stocking and multiple harvesting approaches. Recently aquaculture has also been employed as a major option for the treatment of domestic sewage.

For examples, exporting of aquaculture product to the foreign country can provides security to our economies and cultures.

Next, many job opportunities are provided by fish farming from the view of social benefits in aquaculture nowadays.

The differences in the type and magnitude of environmental impacts of each type of aquaculture lies predominantly on the process and the technology associated with each of them. While intensive aquaculture results to an indirect impact, extensive aquaculture creates a more direct and abrupt impact.

Aquaculture is the potential agriculture to provide those fishermen put out of their works as well as new recruits with a job in aquaculture.

Lastly, environmental benefits will decrease the pressure on wild fisheries.

Nonetheless, it has some environmental backlash. This includes the difficulty that was experienced in disposing effluent or the water that contains high percentage of both inorganic and organic nutrients. Improper disposal of this kind of solution might lead to eutrophication or what was termed as hypernutrification. As a result of this another innovation was produce which is a combination of intensive aquaculture and hydroponics called as aquaponics. This has somehow solved the problem that was presented by aquaculture alone. Hydroponics was the process in which plants are grown indoors and in a controlled environment which do not include soil.

The fisheries in many worlds are categorized at unhealthy or unsustainable levels. A growing aquaculture sector can decrease the pressure on wild fish stocks and provide market demand for farmed fish as great as the demand for wild fish.
With a view to providing a greater boost to aquaculture research and development, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research in New Delhi reorganised the fisheries research institutes in 1987, which led to the establishment of three separate institutes namely: the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA) at Bhubaneswar; the Central Institute of Brackish-water Aquaculture (CIBA) at Chennai and the National Research Centre of Coldwater Fisheries (NRCCWF) at Bhimtal in Nainital. The Pond Culture Division of CIFRI later integrated into CIFA which has been instrumental in the development of several technologies used in freshwater aquaculture and with their dissemination through a number of first line extension projects.

However, fisheries economics and policies have implications for the ability of aquaculture to replace or provide an alternative to wild catches.

1.7 Impacts of Aquaculture

The main impact of aquaculture is the pollution of inland and coastal waters. Aquaculture is different with mollusk farming because there are many species of fish rely on a diet of synthetic feed in pellet form.

This aquatic life is very much different from a terrestrial life. There is one different culture of organisms inside water which is called as aquaculture. Aquaculture is a term that involves many factors like plants, animals and other life forms.

This feed is broadcast onto the surface of the water and feed by the fish as it settles through the water column. Due to not all the feed is consumed, a great deal of feed can reach the bottom where it is eaten by the benthos or break down by microorganisms.
Oyster is eaten in raw, smoked and canned forms. It is a delicacy in many countries. India is endowed with rich natural resources of edible oysters on the Tamil Nadu and Gujarat coasts. It is possible to produce at least 20,000 tonnes of edible oysters every year for export.

This modification of the natural food web structure can significantly affect the local environment. Many studies have indicated feeding exceedingly in fish farms is the effect of changes in benthic community structure because a high food supply may favor some organisms over others.
The EPA must require Aquacultures to operate provided that they do not damage the Marine Park at all cost. Any damaged done on the Marine park because of aquaculture activities must be seen as a responsibility of the Aquaculturist. It would then be the aquaculturist who shall carry the burden of sustaining for the needs of the community.

Moreover, tame animals may die in water diminish of oxygen resulting from microbial break down while the mobile population may transfer to other areas.

Next, eutrophication is the second impact of concentrate fish culture where the water surrounding raising pens or the rivers receiving aquaculture effluent.

Successful breeding and larval rearing of the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and the monsoon river prawn (M. malcolmsonii) provided scope for the farmers to diversify their culture practices. The state of Andhra Pradesh dominates the sector of freshwater prawn sector followed by West Bengal. Mixed farming of freshwater prawn along with carp is also very much accepted as a technologically sound culture practice and a viable option for enhancing farm income.

Fish waste matter and fecal wastes mix with nutrients released from the breakdown of overfeed to raise nutrient levels well above normal, creating an ideal environment for algal blooms to form. The way to compound the problem is most feed that formulated to contain more nutrients than necessary for most applications.
Significant developments took place thereafter with the standardisation of induced breeding techniques and the development of hatchery systems and composite carp culture with the three Indian major carps and three exotic carps, including silver and grass carp, forming the basis for carp polyculture systems. An All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on ‘Composite Culture of Indian and Exotic Fishes’ initiated by the CIFRI during 1971 virtually laid the foundation for scientific carp farming in the country.

When algal blooms die, they settle to the bottom where their decomposition can reduce the oxygen. There is potentially that algal toxins are produced before they die.

Then, the impacts of aquaculture is on natural stocks.

Aquaculture Series 2. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.

Clearly, feeding fish is a fish leads to a net loss of protein in a protein-short world and directly effect on natural stocks, but aquaculture may have a plenty of indirect impact on the natural environment.
God has created this world. He has designed this world by providing beautiful animals and other living beings. The true color of nature can be found in nature itself. Nature involves many things.

Almost all the marine or brackish water culture is relying upon natural fisheries for some aspect of operations. Although more and more hatcheries are being constructed to provide seed for shellfish and finfish culture, most farms still capture wild animals for brood stock or for a source of larvae.
Although India has moved ahead on several fronts in the development of techniques for seafaring of organisms with high production potential, commercial scale operations are yet to take off. On the other hand, freshwater and brackish water aquaculture is making substantial progress.

In some cases, collection of wild-caught shrimp larvae to stock ponds has damage thousands of other larval species in the process.

The full effect of removing natural fish stocks from food webs is difficult to predict.

The inland saline and alluvial soils which are rendered unfit for agriculture can be effectively used for culture of marine fishes and prawns.

When fish are removed to make fish meal, less food may be available for commercially valuable predatory fish and for other marine predators such as seabirds and seals. This effect exacerbates large-scale problems caused by global warming and the El Nino phenomenon.
The first issue that should be look into is that concerning the amount or rate of environmental degradation that is present in the area. This is important since this would help determine how much is left in the area. The problem of environmental degradation sprung from the inability of industrialized and developing countries to balance their use of resources. More resources are used and the replacement of such resources takes so much time.

The El Nino of 1997-1998 is considered to be the second strongest "warm event" in the tropical and subtropical Pacific this century. The shift in water temperature make a severe decline in biomass and total production of small pelagic fish leading to change food webs and a lack of fish meal and fish oil.
Brackishwater farming in India is an age-old system which was confined mainly to the bheries (mahmade impoundments in coastal wetlands) of West Bengal and pokkali (salt resistant deep-water paddy) fields along the Kerala coast. With no additional input, except that of trapping the naturally bred juvenile fish and shrimp seed, these systems have been sustaining high production levels. The importance of brackish-water aquaculture was recognised only after the initiation of an All India Coordinated Research Project, (AICRP) on ‘Brackish-water Fish Farming by ICAR in 1973. The project developed several technologies pertaining to fish and shrimp farming.

Furthermore, there is habitat destruction in mangrove forests. There are over 400,000 hectares of mangroves have been altered into brackish water aquaculture for the cultivating of shrimp in Asia. For examples, farmed shrimp is used to raise the earnings of a developing country's foreign exchange.

One of the most lucrative and foreign exchange earning enterprises is the production of cultured pearls from freshwater bivalves. The technology developed by the CIFA, will go a long way in generating employment and bringing about the economic emancipation of rural women.

Tropical mangroves are the habitat that prevent erosion, good quality of coastal water and cultivate many marine organisms. A sustainable and renewable resource of firewood, timber, pulp, and charcoal from mangrove forests are contributed for the local communities.
Seaweed contributes nearly 30 per cent to world aquaculture production. About one-third of seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean is along the Indian coast. The importance of seaweed is increasing day-by-day because of its wide range of application in the food, textile, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, fodder and fertiliser industries.

These habitats are destroyed and it is very difficult for the rehabilitation is the one of the ways to build the bank of ponds for shrimp farming. Unfortunately, shrimp ponds are profitable only for a short term because they are limited demand in the shrimp market.
Demonstrations of semi-intensive farming technology coupled with credit facilities from commercial banks and subsidies from the Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) helped boost the shrimp farming sector.

Besides that, socio-economic is also one of the impacts of aquaculture. There are many countries that accept the aquaculture because income generated from the export of aquaculture's products that can substantially can lead to a long-range social benefits.

Pearl oysters are abundant in Gulf of Mannar and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Pearl production is already going on at Mandapam in southern Tamil Nadu in a small scale. If pearl oyster farming is developed in India, we will be able to meet our own domestic demand and also export to Japan and other countries.

Furthermore, many rural communities also enjoy the employment opportunities which related to aquaculture but there are some conflicts happened when crash occurred between traditional employment and the aquaculture industry.
In India, two species of marine mussels namely the green mussel (Perna viridis) and the Indian brown mussel (P. indica) are found in rocky coastal areas. Investigation of the culture possibilities for mussels was initiated in early 1970s by the CMFRI which resulted in the development of a range of practices for the culture of these species. Among maritime states, Kerala was the first to recognise the advantages of utilising mussel farming technology in rural development.

The important is resource ownership of aquaculture locations is questionable. The economic benefits are more emphasizes compared to the issues of pollution and social problems.


2.1 Definition of Fishing Industry

The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products. It is defined by the FAO as including recreational, subsistence and commercial fishing, and the harvesting, processing, and marketing sectors.

Fishes are the common example of aquatic animals. But there are many other examples of life that exist inside water. It includes frogs, water snakes, crocodiles, plants etc. These organisms have their different world inside water.

The commercial activity is aimed at the delivery of fish and other seafood products for human consumption or for use as raw material in other industrial processes.

Fishing is defined by the activity of catching fish.

Seaweeds have valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, trace elements and bioactive substances. Prepacked instant foods are growing popular and seaweed colloids are increasingly used. However, India has not done much to exploit this resource.

Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping.

The fishing industry is made up of a great number of independent operators who sell their produce as independent contractors to fish processing plants.

The CMFRI initiated a pearl culture programme in 1972 and successfully developed the technology for pearl production in Indian pearl oysters. Success in controlled breeding and spat production of the Japanese pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) in 1981 and the black-lip pearl oyster (P. margaritifera) in 1984 was another important breakthrough.

It is also made up of fishermen and fishing boat crews working for commercial fleets some of which belong to processing companies.

2.3 Types of Fishing Industry

Commercial fishing is the activity of capturing fish and other seafood for commercial profit, mostly from wild fisheries. It provide a large quantity of food to many countries around the world but those who practice it as an industry must often pursue fish far into the ocean under adverse conditions.

The development of freshwater aquaculture in the country became established following the establishment of the Pond Culture Division at Cuttack in 1949 under the name of the Centre of Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI), West Bengal.

Large scale commercial fishing is also known as industrial fishing. Commercial fishermen harvest a wide variety of animals, ranging from tuna, cod and salmon to shrimp, krill, lobster, clams, squid and crab, in various fisheries for these species.
The earliest attempt at mariculture in India was made at the Mandapam centre of CMFRI in 1958-1959 with the culture of milkfish (Chanos chanos). Over the last few decades, CMFRI has developed various technologies for a number of species including oysters, mussels and clams among sedentary species, as well as for shrimps and finfish.

Commercial fishing methods have become very efficient using large nets and factory ships. Commercial fishing gears today are surrounding nets, seine nets, trawls, dredge, hooks and lines, lift nets, gillnets, entangling nets and traps. There are large and important fisheries worldwide for various species of fish and crustaceans.
India’s potential for export of ornamental fishes and plants is unlimited but our export has so far been negligible. A survey in Lakshadweep and Andaman Islands and the North-East hill states has identified about 100 varieties of marine ornamental fishes from Lakshadweep, 90 varieties from Andaman and 53 species from North-East hill states of India. The North-East hill states are found to hold very rich resources for freshwater aquarium fishes and plants.

However, a very small number of species support the majority of the world's fisheries.

Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture while other methods may fall under marine culture. Fish farming involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures, usually for food. Fish hatchery is a facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species' natural numbers. The most common fish species raised by fish farms are salmon, carol, tilapia, European seabass, catfish and cod.

Andhra Pradesh is a leading producer of shrimps, especially at Nellore. Many of the farm holdings located in Kerala and West Bengal belong to the traditional systems, of shrimp farming.

Increasing demands on wild fisheries by commercial fishing has caused widespread overfishing. Fish farming offers an alternative solution to the increasing market demand for fish and fish protein.

Fish processing is the processing of fish and other seafood deliver by fisheries, which are the supplier of the fish products industry.

The CIFA has been transferring this technology for the past two years through regular training programmes. Investigations on large scale seed production of the other air-breathing catfish, have been planned. Hypophysation of murrels is well- known and seed production possible. Recently, the CIFA has also bred and reared the freshwater shark, Wallago attu, which is a popular fish in north and north-western India as well as Manipur.

Although the term refer specifically to fish, in practice it is extended to cover all aquatic organisms harvested for commercial purposes, whether harvested from cultured or wild stocks. The largest fish processing companies can have their own fleets. The products of the industry are usually sold wholesale to grocery chains or to intermediaries. Fish processing may be subdivided into two major categories that is fish handling and fish products manufacturing.
The latter can again be subdivided into two categories, namely, sea farming (mariculture) and brackish water aquaculture.

Another natural subdivision is into primary processing involved in the filleting and freezing of fresh fish for onward distribution to fresh fish retail and catering outlets. The secondary processing that produces chilled, frozen and canned products for the retail and catering trades.

Fish and fish products are consumed as food all over the world. Fish and other aquatic organisms are processed into various food and non-food products.

Aquaculture can be turned out to be useful if and only if it is studied well and thoughts are applied in the direction. Preserving lives of aquatic animals is a noble deed and everyone should think about it.

Fish oil is recommended for a healthy diet because it contains the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA), precursors to eicosanoids that reduce inflammation throughout the body. Fish emulsion is a fertilizer that is produced from the fluid remains of fish processed for fish oil and fish meal industrially. Fish meal is made from both whole fish and the bones and offal from processed fish. It is a brown powder or cake obtained by rendering pressing the whole fish or fish trimmings to remove the fish oil. It used as a high-protein supplement in aquaculture feed.
Baqrdach, J.E. (1997). Sustainable aquaculture. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Sea horse, star fish, sea urchin abd sea cucumber are used in traditional Chinese medicine. The Sea snails Murex brandaris and Murex Trunculus are used to make the pigment Tyrian purple. Some sepia pigment is made from the inky secretions of cuttlefish.

Fish marketing is the marketing and sale of fish products. It would require special facilities for transportation and holding in wholesale and retail markets.

The main requirements of aquaculture are seed, feed and water quality.

When they have to process before marketing it will undoubtedly be advantageous to link the production centre with transport, storage, preservation or processing system of general fish marketing. This will allow fuller control of market outlets and prices, allowing grater marketing flexibility.
Mud crabs (Scylla serrata) are abundant in Indian estuaries, especially in Chilka lake Pulicat lake and Vembanad lake but the crab resources are getting over-exploited at present. A small quantity of mud crab is exported live to Singapore from Chennai. No commercial culture has been taken up so far, despite heavy demand and high price.

Method of Fishing

First method is using a fishing pole and bait by pole troll fishermen to catch the fishes, encompasses from tuna to cod. This type of fishing is called pole troll fishing. It is environmental friendly and a good alternative to pelagic longline.

Studies on maturation and the breeding of shrimps were initiated by the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) in the early 1970s. In the late 1980s MPEDA established the Andhra Pradesh Shrimp Seed Production and Research Centre (TASPARC) and the Andhra Pradesh and Orissa Shrimp Seed Production and Research Centre (OSPARC) based in Orissa which provided assistance for the establishment of a number of private hatcheries.

Unlike pelagic longlines, the rate of bycatch I pole troll fishing is diminishing.

Next, purse seining is use with a large wall of netting to enclose fishes. Fishermen pull the bottom of the netting closed like a drawstring purse to herd fish into the center.

Bhubaneswar has made significant advances in breeding and rearing the air-breathing cat-fish, popularly called magur, in a greater part of the country. The biotechnological approach has been adopted and the fish are implanted with hormonal pellets to advance maturity. These are then repeatedly spawned form April to October, in and out of the breeding season.

The types of purse seines used depend on which species of fish like sardines or other animals like school of dolphins.

Gillnetting is a net that uses curtains of netting and hang with floats and weights. Function of floats and weights are to fix the net to the sea ground or make it to float at the surface of the sea. The purpose of this netting makes the fish invisible to it so the fishes will swim into it. Gillnets are used to catch sardines, salmon and cod yet the sharks and sea turtles accidently.

Longlining is string with small lines of baited hooks and swinging at flat spaced intervals. It can be put near the surface or place on the sea ground to catch pelagic fish like tuna and deep dwelling fish. Lonlining also cause bycatch problem because some of the animals like sea turtle, sharks and seabird can be attracted to the bait. However, by lowering the longlining to deeper sea bycatch can be reduced.

Trawls and dredges are nets set at different depths to catch fish. Trawl nets are dragged along the sea ground to catch fish like pollock, cod, flounder and shrimp. Meanwhile, dredging is carry out by locating a heavy frame that attached with mesh bag along the sea bed to catch animals which is living in the sand catches, such as scallops, clams and oysters. Both trawls and dredge activities intentionally can damage the sea floor and results in bycatch risk.

Fishermen submerged wire or wood cages on the bottom ocean to attract fish with bait and hold them alive until fishermen return to haul in the catch. This fishing method is known as traps and pot. Mostly, fishermen catch lobsters, crabs, shrimp, sablefish and Pacific cod by this method. They have less negative impact if compare to trawls in unintended catch and sea floor impact.

One of the conventional method for catching large fish and still used until today by skilled fishermen is harpooning. When a harpooner spots a fish, he thrusts or shoots a long aluminum or wooden harpoon into the animal and hauls it aboard. Harpooners catch large, pelagic predators like blue fin tuna and swordfish. Harpooning is an environmentally responsible fishing method. Bycatch of unwanted marine life is not a issue because harpoon fishermen visually identify the species and size of the targeted fish before killing it.

Trolling is a hook-and-line method that hauls a fishing lines behind or alongside of a boat. Due to different depths, fishermen use different types of lures and baits to "troll" and attract for different kinds of fish. Trollers catch the fish such as salmon, mahi mahi and albacore tuna which will following a moving lure or bait. Trolling is a fishing method that will not destroy or harm the environment. Since the fishing lines are reeled in soon after a fish takes the bait, fishermen can release fish that is unwanted from their hooks immediately.

Effect of Fishing Industries

Overfishing occurs when fishing activities reduce fish stocks below an acceptance level. This can occur in any body of water from a pond to the oceans. Ultimately overfishing may lead to resource depletion in cases of subsidized fishing, low biological growth rates and critical low biomass. For example, overfishing of sharks has led to the upset of entire marine ecosystems. The ability of fisheries to naturally recover also depends on whether the conditions of the ecosystems are suitable for population growth.

Aquaculture involves the entire living of these animals. What do these animals do? What do they eat? Whether they have a respiratory system? Whether they live in groups or community? Aquaculture gives an answer to all these questions.

Dramatic changes in species composition may establish other equilibrium energy flows that involve other species compositions than had been present before. For example, remove almost all the trout and the carp might take over and make it nearly impossible for the trout to re-establish a breeding population.

A sustainable fishery produces consistent output over an indefinite period without damaging the environment. It combines with some theoretical disciplines, for example preventing overfishing through a few techniques, like quota of fishing for individual, lowering the practices of illegal fishing. This can be done by implementation of related regulation and law, protected areas is created, restoring destructed fisheries and also organizing some campaigns and certification program.

Freshwater aquaculture activity is prominent in the eastern part of the country, particularly the states of West Bengal, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh with new areas coming under culture in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Assam and Tripura.

The main issue about sustainability is heavy fishing pressure, such as over exploitation and growth overfishing will cause the loss potential yield, stock structure will erode to the point where it loses diversity and resilience to environment fluctuation, and economic infrastructure and ecosystem will cycle between collapse and recovery.

The resource usage in political goal usually is the weak part in the system of fisheries management because both having different objective in fisheries management.

Midlen, A. & Redding, T. (1998). Environmental management of aquaculture.

The political objective are to maximize sustainable biomass and economic yield, increase the employment in certain areas, and also secure the supply of food and production of protein.

Ways to Reduce the Effect of Fishing Industries

One of the ways to reduce the effect of fishing industries is stopping the slaughter. WWF's Global Marine Programmer is having cooperation relationship with all fisheries around the world with aim to reduce harm of ecosystem that caused by damaging and wasting fishing practices. They are focusing on work o f by catch since it was one of the greatest and most pervasive threats to the life in ocean. In the year of 2004, WWF created a Global By catch Initiative with respect to sustainable fisheries and species conservation. The initiative along with fishing industry, conservation organization, government and academia in searching the ways of reducing by catch and promote the ways to world. In order to reduce the negative impacts of fishing, the task includes combining conservation of fisheries management and strengthening fisheries policy, terminating the practices of destructive fishing and identifying selective fishing gear.

The second way is to stop overfishing. In order to stop overfishing, a key area of World Wildlife Fund's work on sustainable fishing is engaging with the fishing industry and governments to improve fisheries management. World Wildlife Fund also pay attention on incorporating ecosystem-based management into the way of fisheries are managed, such as reduce capacity of fishing to the levels that can sustain the marine ecosystems, reduce fishing pressure to allow over-exploited fish populations to recover and ensure the maintenance of healthy populations. Other than that, fisheries policy should be strengthen and promote fairer Fisheries Partnership Agreements for fishing in foreign waters and reduce illegal fishing.

The following way is promoting sustainable seafood. World Wildlife Fund is promoting economic and consumer initiatives, and trade management measures that encourage sustainable fisheries. A main focus of work involves supporting the activities of the Marine Stewardship Council, an independent organization. It is recognizes via a certification programme, sustainable marine fisheries and their products. World Wildlife Fund established a Sustainable Seafood Choices project in 2005 to aim at the retail and market end of the seafood industry to support the MSC's work. In partnership with other Non Government Organizations, the project combines advocacy, strategic partnerships, and communications to raise the profile of sustainable seafood products with consumers and markets, and provide guidance on their purchase.


In a nutshell, aquaculture will be one of the most feasible and practicable methods use to supply the demands of the world. But there are many challenges and difficulties for maintaining the profitability and environmental compatibility of aquaculture occurred. Many governments wish for the development, evolution and expansion of aquaculture which is concentrate and centralize on the economic growth. But some of the governments have started to enforce and actualize stricter regulatory recommendations addressing environmental and social issues to assure and fight on the sustainability of aquaculture.

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Malaysia has made evolvement and development in the establishment of legal and regulatory scheme which are having a positive effect on aquaculture growth at the beginning and with the requirements that people also have to maintain the balance of ecosystems.

Fishing industries also play a significant role in contributed and fulfillment the various demands of people among the world. People can get sufficient and enough supply of fish at anytime and anyplace from global. Besides, it also provides a large number and potential jobs opportunity to the community and it will reduce unemployment eventually. Because of the high employment, income of the community and the income earn by country will increase and it will improve the quality of life directly.

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