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On aggression among youth

On aggression during adolescence

On aggressive behavior

On aggressive driving

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      • This guide begins by describing the problem of aggressive driving and reviewing factors that increase its risks. It then identifies a series of questions to help you analyze your local aggressive-driving problem.
        An earlier study in 2003, integrated data from questionnaires, mobile phone companies and crash records kept by the police. It found that the overall relative risk (RR) of having an accident for mobile phone users when compared to non-mobile phone users averaged 1.38 across all groups. The RR was then adjusted for kilometers driven per year and other crash exposures. When this was done RR was 1.11 for men and 1.21 for women. The study also revealed that increased mobile phone use correlated with an increase in RR.

        Finally, it reviews responses to the problem and what is known about these from evaluative research and police practice.

        Aggressive driving includes what is commonly referred to as road rage, which involves assault motivated by driver anger.

        Another way is to tailgate the other car. They usually do this way to show anger, impatience, competitiveness, and vindictiveness in frequently driving situations. In this way, they often follow other car too closely with high speed. For example, a car drives in high speed and other car try to race that car and drive in tailgate each other competitively. Even, they are sometimes using alcohol and drug. In this case, it refers to an incident in which a driver physically attacks another driver because of a traffic dispute.

        This guide covers aggressive driving and the driving-related triggers for road rage. Aggressive driving has gained widespread public attention over the past 20 years largely due to highly publicized crashes and crimes associated with road rage.
        I.Attention Getter: Speeding, tailgating, giving the finger and outright violence. Each day Americans grow more and more likely to take out their personal frustrations on other drivers. It is called aggressive driving and it is on the incline.

        Aggressive driving is but one aspect of the larger set of problems related to impaired, dangerous, and irresponsible vehicle use. This guide is limited to addressing the particular harms aggressive driving creates.

        Most programs referenced to date appear in NHTSA’s Aggressive Driving Enforcement Strategies for Implementing Best Practices (June 2000).1 These cited efforts generally have addressed aggressive driving through specific traffic-enforcement programs. A few agencies have reported success measured by a reduction of crashes, but their programs usually applied intensive traffic law enforcement aimed at all violations. Pennsylvania and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, have reported favorable results with programs aimed specifically at well-defined acts of aggressive driving.

        Related problems not directly addressed in this guide, each of which requires separate analysis, include:

        • drunken and impaired driving,
        • reckless driving,
        • joyriding,
        • speeding,
        • street racing,
        • unlicensed driving,
        • hit-and-run crashes,
        • red-signal and stop-sign violations, and
        • inattentive driving.

        Other guides in this series—all of which are listed at the end of this guide—cover some of these related problems.

        This guide suggests several strategies for addressing the problems. These strategies combine the elements of enforcement, education, and engineering. The strategies are suggested recognizing that, with few exceptions, programs that depend upon only one of these elements are not likely to be successful. The table below identifies the strategies, organized according to their underlying objectives.

        For the most up-to-date listing of current and future guides, see

        General Description of the Problem

        Aggressive driving refers to dangerous driving that disregards safety and courtesy. The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration defines aggressive driving as occurring "when individuals commit a combination of moving traffic offenses so as to endanger other persons or property."1 Driving behaviors that commonly constitute aggressive driving include:

        • speeding,
        • racing,
        • frequently changing lanes,
        • cutting off other drivers,
        • failing to signal,
        • running red lights,
        • failing to yield,
        • tailgating,
        • slowing rapidly to discourage a tailgater, and
        • boxing other cars in and using other intimidation maneuvers.2

        In addition, aggressive drivers may further try to intimidate their victims by shouting or making obscene gestures at them. Several different legislatively-defined driving offenses are similar in some ways to aggressive driving.

        The last paragraph of the essay is the conclusion. It summarizes the three reasons stated in the premise (15). The conclusion restates the stand taken by the writer, that is, aggressive driving should be avoided (17). Sentences (18) and (19) are general statements which support the main premise. These are optional.

        While statutory definitions vary from state to state, they include the following:

        Careless, inattentive, distracted, or negligent driving involves failing to exercise normal care, or endangering people or property, while driving a vehicle.

        Aggressive Driving Should be Avoided
        (1)Aggressive driving is a phenomenon, which has only recently got the public worried. (2)The National Highway Traffic Safety Council (NHTSC) defines aggressive driving as “the operation of a motor vehicle in a manner that endangers or is likely to endanger persons or property”. (3)Actions such as running red lights, improper passing, overtaking on the left, improper lane change, failing to yield, improper turns, running stop signs, tailgaiting, careless driving and speeding are examples of aggressive driving.. (4)Such actions are dangerous to other road users. (5)Aggressive driving should be avoided because it causes crashes, injuries and fatalities.

        Many states are adding to their statutes specific language prohibiting use of certain technologies while driving. Some states include negligent driving under reckless or impaired driving statutes so that defendants plead to the lesser negligent-driving charge to avoid the more serious charge.
        Educate and impose sanctions against repeat offenders. The National Safety Council has developed an Attitudinal Defensive Driver Education course that is intended to reach the habitual traffic violator. The habitually aggressive driver also may benefit from this approach. However, this program has not been evaluated for effectiveness either generally or specifically for aggressive drivers.

        Reckless driving is a more serious form of careless or negligent driving. It is variously defined as creating a substantial or unjustifiable risk of harm, a conscious or wanton disregard of safety, and/or a gross deviation from reasonable behavior in the situation.

        Preview: To overcome aggressive driving we must first understand it. I would like to share with you the problem, the dangers and the solutions for this growing trend.

        Aggressive driving addresses many of the same behaviors covered by reckless driving statutes, but adds a notion of a pattern of behaviors occurring over a short period and/or intention. As intention is difficult to prove, states with statutes that require the standard of intention be met often see aggressive driving charged as reckless driving.

        Target enforcement. This strategy has been the one most commonly employed in the field so far. However, many of the programs either concentrate on speeding or respond to a state law that determines that aggressive driving is the violation of multiple traffic laws, regardless of whether the driving affects others.

        Driving behaviors included in the definition of aggressive driving could result from aggression, selfishness, or competition.

        As many of the behaviors that constitute aggressive driving could also occur in the absence of aggression (if a driver is inattentive, for example), some state legislatures use a threshold of three or more potentially aggressive driving behaviors committed in a sequence or over a short period in their statutory definitions.

        I. The Problem: The major cause of aggressive driving is the discourteous or inattentive driver.

        Aggressive driving definitions should cover hostile, competitive, and selfishly motivated driving behaviors.

        Road rage is a more extreme form of aggression that involves criminal intimidation and/or violence precipitated by driving activities.

        A. The number one cause is probably the “left-lane hog”, according to a story in the Amarillo Daily News.

        Road rage involves an intent to harm, can involve use of the vehicle as a weapon, or can take place outside the vehicle(s) involved.

        Driving provokes anger more often than other activities.3 Driving is a goal-oriented activity, the purpose being to get from point A to point B expeditiously; yet people easily and frequently thwart driving goals. Driving is also a stressful activity that exposes drivers and passengers to potentially significant dangers.

        To conclude, aggressive drivers are endangering everyone because they create hazardous condition by acting and driving foolishly, it means that it is not dangerous only for the drivers but also for everyone. They should control their anger and change their bad habit in driving and learn to drive safety. One important thing is that they must obey the traffic regulation. After all, the lives they save could be their own.

        Incivility amongst drivers is common4 and reliably provokes anger in its recipients. For all these reasons, drivers report frequently feeling angry.5

        Anger may, but usually does not, lead to aggressive driving or road rage.

        Although law enforcement authorities warn motorist again aggressive driving, the numbers who act out their angry impulses has not declined. It caused by a lack of people’s understanding about the law especially about traffic regulation.

        Situational, cultural, and individual factors combine to cause angry drivers to behave aggressively behind the wheel.

        Prevalence of Aggressive Driving

        Two-thirds of traffic fatalities involve behaviors commonly associated with aggressive driving, such as speeding, running red lights, and improperly changing lanes.6 One-third of all traffic injuries result from aggressive driving.7 Speeding, a common element in aggressive driving, contributes to about one-third of fatal crashes.8

        Several studies have shown that somewhere between 20 percent and 35 percent of drivers have honked their horns, yelled, obscenely gestured, and cursed at other drivers.

        In addition to cutting off and to tailgating other cars, aggressive drivers often use rude language or gestures to show their anger. When they are in anger and inpatient, they will run fast and uncontrolled. It often happens in the street and also makes a bad condition for the driver him/her self.

        Estimates indicate that from 6 percent to 28 percent of drivers have tailgated or blocked other drivers' vehicles.9 These behaviors can be part of a pattern of acts that constitute aggressive driving, and they can also provoke anger that could lead to aggressive driving in others.

        Research findings are mixed on whether aggressive driving is more prevalent today than in the past.

        V. Summarize: Today we have looked at the trend of aggressive driving.

        What is known is that aggressive driving occurs frequently and is a significant contributor to injury and fatality collisions. While the violent and assaultive acts that constitute road rage are rare, they deserve police attention.

        Harms Caused by Aggressive Driving

        Car crashes are the leading cause of accidental death and injury in the United States and the leading cause of all deaths amongst young people.10 Aggressive driving is responsible for a significant proportion of all car crashes. Aggressive drivers kill two to four times more people than drunken drivers.

        Another way is to tailgate the other car. The cars will be bumper to bumper when the traffic is very crowded. An angry driver usually doesn’t patient and doesn’t want to keep distance with other, because they want to go fast on each other. This condition may be one of accident’s reasons.

        11 Aggressive driving creates an atmosphere of incivility on the roads, heightening driving anxiety and triggering more driving anger.

        Factors Contributing to Aggressive Driving

        Understanding the factors that contribute to your problem will help you frame your own local analysis questions, determine good effectiveness measures, recognize key intervention points, and select appropriate responses.

        Frustration and Anger

        Frustration at being slowed or thwarted from a driving goal can easily lead to anger.12 Frustration can also lead to selfish or competitive aggressive behavior—behavior designed to achieve personal driving goals at the expense of others or the common good.

        Frustration and anger do not, however, always result in aggression.

        The number of vehicles on freeways and streets is increasing at an alarming race. This influx of motor vehicles is increasing hazardous conditions. Moreover, drivers are in such in rush to get their destinations that many become angry or inpatient with other motorists who are too slow in their way. Aggressive drivers react foolishly toward others in several dangerous ways.

        Driving aggression occurs when a mix of personal, situational, environmental, and cultural factors combine to reduce the inhibitions most drivers feel against acting aggressively. Personal factors such as antisocial and competitive tendencies can make a driver prone to aggression, but aggression is unlikely to result absent other contributing factors.
        No effort has addressed the treatment of engineering elements as a means of mitigating aggressive driving, even though traffic safety professionals recognize that the driving environment plays a role in driver behavior. Moreover, because there is an apparent link between aggression and frustration—and the driving environment often is a frustrating one—there remains a need to identify and correct, where possible, those elements that can lead to frustration (e.g., uncoordinated traffic signals and lack of accurate information regarding causes of traffic delays).

        Environmental factors such as the anonymity cars provide, situational factors such as feeling urgent about meeting driving goals, and cultural factors such as approval for placing personal goals over the common good can all contribute to lower the qualms drivers would otherwise have against aggressive behavior.
        Change or mitigate the impact of identified elements in the environment that can trigger aggressive driving. While there is agreement that this strategy is an integral part of addressing aggressive driving, no program has been found that includes this element. What is required is a broadening of the approach to correcting aggressive driving, one that recognizes that a team of traffic safety experts needs to address all facets of driving.


        Research suggests that the single largest group of aggressive American drivers is poorly educated white men under 30 years old who drive high-performance vehicles.13 There is a strong correlation between such young white men and violent crimes, serious traffic offenses, license suspensions, and minor moving violations. These young white men also appear to be the most likely group to engage in more extreme road rage behaviors.

        C. The angry driver then may demonstrate his displeasure by speeding around the other vehicle, cutting the other driver off or with a number of verbal and nonverbal messages.

        14 They may be more prone to have antisocial, hostile personalities (as described in the next section). In general, younger people tend to lack the impulse control gained with age, and men tend toward more aggressive behavior than women.
        III. Connection: Everday we have to deal with these people on our roads. We run a great risk just driving around the corner to go to the store or a quiet trip to church. According to U.S. News and World Report, the U.S. Department of Transportation estimates that two-thirds of fatalities are at least partially caused by aggressive driving. Fortunately, there is something we can do about it.

        Because members of this group so often break traffic laws, they will be disproportionately represented in any traffic enforcement effort. Accordingly, police officers will contact the most dangerous drivers by enforcing the entire range of moving violations.

        Signpost: Though the driver may feel justified in his or her action, this kind of display is most times very dangerous and often will result in damage to either the vehicles, the drivers and nonverbal messages.


        While young white men are the largest single group of aggressive drivers, there is no single definitive profile of aggressive-driving perpetrators.16 Otherwise law-abiding citizens commit many aggressive driving acts.17

        Personality or Individual Traits

        There appear to be two primary personality types prone to becoming aggressive behind the wheel. One is an antisocial, hostile personality; the other, a competitive one.

        An argumentative essay attempts to be highly persuasive and logical. It usually assumes that the reader disagrees with the writer, but it should be noted that the reader is no less intelligent than the writer. Hence an argumentative essay should be written objectively, logically and respectfully.

        18 Antisocial drivers are associated with the young white male group. There is significant overlap between the factors associated with antisocial driving and those associated with criminal behavior.19 These include:

        • impulsiveness,
        • sensation-seeking,
        • unrealistic thinking (underestimating risks and overrating abilities to handle problems),
        • poor problem-solving skills,
        • egocentricity (lacking concern for others' well-being), and
        • This antisocial group of drivers is prone to hostile aggression in and out of their vehicles. Antisocial drivers have high rates of accidents and violations and are many times more likely than the general driving population to have criminal histories.


        Retaliation and revenge are common motives for antisocial drivers who feel disrespected, slighted, infringed-upon, or endangered.

        VI. Close with Impact: So the next time you are driving down the road minding your own business and you get cutoff, make sure this in the only finger you give. (Thumbs up!)

        This same motive is common in domestic violence, gang violence, theft, and arson.22 Seemingly trivial events such as perceived insults to drivers' self-image or safety most often provoke driving anger. These triggering events tap into a deep well of anger already present in the antisocial driver.
        B. It is these seemingly unaware drivers that infuriate the aggressive driver and trigger the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde transformation.

        Triggering incidents can include frustrations such as slow, hesitant, or distracted drivers; scares such as near-collisions; offensive behaviors such as rude gestures; and territorial encroachments such as competing for a parking space or failure to yield.

        Reduce nonrecurring delays and provide better information about these delays. Numerous examples of providing traffic information exist throughout the country. What is needed is a better assessment of what methods work. An integral part of providing information is keeping traffic moving. The Federal Highway Administration has been actively involved with their programs to improve incident management and provide for better traffic control.

        23 These acts are not intrinsically aggression-inducing; it is the way a person interprets them and how the person reacts to that interpretation that causes the acts to trigger aggression.24

        The second group of aggressive drivers appears prone to socially approved forms of aggression such as competition, which can easily be translated into aggressive driving behaviors.

        Although law enforcement authorities warn motorists against aggressive driving, the number who acts out their angry impulses has not declined. It happen because of the drivers think that showing their angry it means they are brave. Especially if they are men, they will show how man they are. With driving aggressively, they can show their vehicles to other. Sometimes, they drive aggressively, just to show up what they have in their ride. The aggressive drivers also think that they will be respected by other drivers with acts their angry, emotion in driving aggressively.

        Competitive drivers dislike being passed, enjoy the thrill of speeding, and lack the internal controls to override their competitiveness on the road. Research has shown that both the antisocial and the competitive drivers have significantly more accidents and traffic violations than the general driving public.
        One way an angry driver may react is to cut off another motorist. They usually use the left side of traffic, but if it is crowded by other motorists, the angry driver will break this regulation, and, create a dangerous condition. It will happen when the vehicles are cut off by other vehicles from the opposite, and then it will cause the accident.


        Environmental Conditions

        A tendency toward aggression or competitiveness is not sufficient to cause aggressive driving. Environmental, situational, or cultural factors must come into play before someone with such tendencies will be triggered to drive aggressively.

        An Australian study conducted in 2005, estimated that the risk of a collision when using a mobile phone was four times higher than the risk when a mobile phone was not being used. 456 drivers who owned phones, were involved in crashes. By collecting these drivers’ mobile phone records, scientists determined those who made telephone calls just before the time of the crash. Case crossover analysis of mobile phone habits enabled the scientists to calculate the increase in risk. Even hands-free devices were not that safer.

        The car's and the road's physical environment can either facilitate or inhibit the expression of aggression while driving. Manipulating environmental conditions can inhibit antisocial and competitive drivers from driving aggressively.

        Conduct educational and public information campaigns. Public information and education (PI&E) need to be a part of targeted enforcement. The programs should employ multimedia, multiaudience approaches.

        The lack of negative reinforcement (citations) for aggressive driving can also contribute to a driver's likelihood to engage in it. Given the high number of aggressive driving actions and the relatively low number of police officers, the probability of officers' detecting any particular aggressive driving action is rather low.

        As three reasons are stated in the premise, there are three body paragraphs; each mentioning one reason. Each paragraph starts with a topic sentence which states one of the reasons [(6), (9) and (13)]. Each of these reasons is well-supported by supporting details: (7) and (8) in the second paragraph; (10), (11) and (12) in the third paragraph; and (14) and (15) in the fourth paragraph which is the final body paragraph.


        Street design can facilitate or inhibit speeding. For example, drivers are likely to speed on wide streets with long, straight stretches.27 Conversely, traffic-calming devices compel drivers to slow down and exercise skill and attention to the road.†

        Road conditions can increase driver frustration.

        Although there are objections, there is sufficient evidence to prove that using a mobile phone while driving is risky. Using a mobile phone while driving, taxes the cognitive skills of the brain at the expense of driving. The vast majority of drivers have no idea that using the mobile phone while driving is risky.

        Bottlenecks, lack of signs indicating the source of unexpected congestion, short green-light intervals, confusing intersections (such as roundabouts), and stretches of uncoordinated traffic lights can trigger aggression.
        A. In a recent member survey by the American Automobile Association, motorists named aggressive driving as their top concern on the roads.

        The social environment also influences driving behavior. Driving is a social activity, and good driving depends on accurate interpretation of social cues, without which drivers are unable to judge what others are likely to do. Antisocial drivers may be unable to accurately anticipate others' moves on the road.

        Paradoxically, while driving is a social activity, drivers are isolated from each other.

        II. Definition: Driving is a curious combination of public and private acts. A car isolates a driver from the world even as it carries him through it. The sensation of personal power is intoxicating. Aggressive driving includes such things as illegal or improper lane changes or turns, failing to stop or yield right of way, excessive speeds, and an assortment of gestures, looks and verbally abusive language.

        This isolation lessens the impact of cultural norms that prevent uncivil behavior in other social settings.28 Anonymity is the most significant social factor mediating aggressive driving. A driver in a convertible is more likely to feel constrained by social conventions concerning driving behavior than is a driver in an enclosed vehicle with darkly tinted windows.
        B. Ironically, the same survey showed that two out of three people admitted to driving aggressively in the last year.

        Situational Factors

        Technologies such as mobile phones and e-mail devices have combined with economic pressures to compress many drivers' conception of time, creating intense pressure to make every minute productive. Commuting time, for many drivers, is the last frontier of unexploited time, and the perception that commuting time is lost or wasted time contributes to aggressive efforts to shorten commutes.29 Time pressure or urgency to achieve a driving goal—such as getting to work or home quickly—combines with frustrating factors such as congestion to trigger aggression in antisocial and competitive drivers.30

        There is a wide variety of situational variables that can create or promote situational aggression.

        A. That it creates a very real problem to our everday lives.

        For example, heat, noise, or other annoying environmental conditions can make drivers irritable and increase the likelihood that a driver will resort to violence when feeling irritated or threatened on the road.
        One way an angry driver may react is to cut off another motorist. They are usually move to others line to show how their angry to other drivers. They tend to exceed safe speed limits, change lanes frequently, cut off other drivers, and force their way ahead. For example, the drives are crossing to other even cross into Trans Jakarta’s lines. They force his way ahead in traffic by engaging in reckless and dangerous maneuvers. For instance, they drive zigzag to show how brave they are.

        31 These conditions can goad drivers who tend to have aggression issues toward violent responses to provocative events.32

        The most significant triggering events for road rage are relatively minor. They include aggressive tailgating (62% of cases), headlight flashing (60% of cases), deliberately obstructing other vehicles (21% of cases), and verbally abusing other drivers (16% of cases).33 In short, aggressive driving begets aggressive driving.

        Antisocial and competitive drivers don't commit all aggressive driving acts. Ordinary people in extreme situations, including impaired, stressed, and time-pressured drivers, commit some of them.

        There is significant overlap between aggressive and violent drivers and their victims.

        B. And that there are things we all should do to insure that we do not fall victim to this problem.

        One study found that road rage offenders were more than five times as likely as the general population to have been past victims of a road rage incident.34 Vigilantism constitutes a common form of retaliatory road rage, where an otherwise responsible driver decides to teach an aggressive driver a lesson by returning the aggression.

        In the absence of intensive enforcement of driving laws, victims of aggressive driving sometimes dangerously overreact. Drivers who would express their frustration in less harmful ways in other situations find they have no outlet for expressing anger while driving except by engaging in aggressive driving themselves. It is equally difficult for drivers who frustrate or inconvenience others—intentionally or not—to communicate remorse while driving, which, if they could, might well defuse other drivers' aggression.

        When a topic is argumentative, it contains opposing views or opinions. There can be ideas or points for (pro) which support the issue being discussed, or ideas or points against (con/contra) which disagree with the issue. This being the case, you should make it a point to state opinions that oppose yours. By doing this you are telling the reader that you have considered the opposing views. These opposing statements that you make should be brief. They should not be as detailed as your own views. Usually this is mentioned near the end of the essay. The formats below can be used in the final examination. You can choose either one.


        One common aggressive driving trigger does not even occur on the road. Parking rage can arise in busy parking lots or those with cramped spaces. Parking tends to trigger territorial and competitive behavior, which can lead to confrontations.36 Anecdotal evidence indicates that the general driving public is most likely to engage in aggressive driving in parking lots.37

        Cultural Factors

        Culture influences aggressive behavior by shaping how the aggressor interprets triggering events and by influencing whether the aggressor believes a violent response is culturally acceptable in a given situation. To the extent the culture values convenience, individuality over the common good, primacy of cars over bicycles, fast-paced lifestyles, and competition, it promotes aggressive driving.

        Some researchers have characterized American culture as contentious, argumentative, and disrespectful,38 and the American media as portraying aggressive driving in a positive light, thereby creating aggressive role models.

        The essay “Aggressive Driving Should be Avoided” is an example of an argumentative essay. It is organized in the way of an argumentative essay. (The numbers in the essay denote the sentence numbers which will be used here to identify the parts of the essay).

        Risky-driver role models create cultural norms accepting of dangerous and threatening driving behavior.39 Currently, mainstream society does not stigmatize vehicle crimes in the same way as other crimes. Popular media portray aggressive driving as cool, thereby implying social approval, especially to young drivers.
        IV. The Solution: There are really two types of solutions: one for the victim and one for the perpetrators.

        Multiple Causes

        While each of the above factors contributes to aggressive driving, none alone explains it. A complex dynamic operates whereby individual traits, situational circumstances, car- and road-related factors, and cultural influences all interrelate to build up to aggressive action or excessive risk-taking while driving. Sitting in traffic on a very hot day with no air-conditioning might be irritating, for example, but in the absence of a triggering event that taps into an antisocial outlook or competitive instinct, aggressive acts are unlikely to occur. Being cut off in traffic is a potential trigger, but without latent aggression and a stressful or irritating environment, aggressive driving is again unlikely to occur.

        Understanding Your Local Problem

        Effective responses to aggressive driving will take into account the preceding general information about the dynamics and contributing factors to it, as well as a specific understanding of your local problem. An analysis of the local problem will shape the most effective response possible in your jurisdiction.

        Responses tend to work best when based on sound data about problem behaviors, locations, times of day, physical features, and offender characteristics in your locale.

        The essay offers reasons, and supports these reasons. The essay should
        prove its point.
        The essay, at times, refutes (proves wrong) opposing arguments.


        In addition to criminal justice agencies, the following groups have an interest in the aggressive driving problem, and you should consider them for the contribution they might make to gathering information about the problem and responding to it.

        Elected officials can gauge public concern about the problem and enact legislation to address it.

        The media can call attention to aggressive driving issues and how to avoid becoming a victim or a perpetrator.

        When planning an argumentative essay, be aware that the essay should contain the following characteristics:
        The argumentative essay introduces and explains the issue or case. The reader needs to know what the issue is going to be.

        State and local motor vehicle and highway safety departments may have conducted their own studies of the problem and can identify and mitigate the physical environmental factors that contribute to aggressive driving.

        Transportation safety advocates may also have conducted studies of the problem and can raise awareness about aggressive driving, and work with states and localities to reduce the factors that contribute to it.

        Private businesses, including business associations, have a stake in ensuring employees can commute to their jobs safely and efficiently. They can partner with states and localities in addressing aggressive driving issues and disseminating information to employers, especially to businesses that have vehicle fleets.

        Private businesses, including cellular phone and data companies, which keep records on electronic device use, can be partners in providing evidence after violations.

        Motor vehicle insurance companies benefit financially when traffic collisions are reduced. They can partner with police to fund research on aggressive driving, develop community education materials, and include information on aggressive driving in their publications.

        Road construction contractors can work with police to design road construction sites and traffic detours to minimize traffic disruptions and optimize safety.

        Auto clubs can educate members about ways to avoid being either a victim or a perpetrator of aggressive driving.

        Victims' advocacy organizations can collect data on aggressive driving victimization for use in assessing the extent and severity of a locale's problem.

        Public health agencies' and hospitals' injury prevention staff can conduct research on the prevalence of aggressive driving, its contribution to injuries, and the injuries' social and cost impacts. These data can support police problem-solving efforts.

        B. Now if on the other hand, you are the one late for work or just can't wait to get home from a long week at work you may want to consider these suggestions.

        Asking the Right Questions

        The following are some critical questions you should ask in analyzing your particular problem of aggressive driving, even if the answers are not always readily available. Your answers to these and other questions will help you choose the most appropriate set of responses later on. The various entities with a stake in the problem and its solution can help you collect some of these data, as not all of the information will be readily available to police.

        If you rely solely on traffic crash and citation data, recognize that you will not have a complete picture of the problem, as much aggressive driving goes undetected, unenforced, or unreported.


        • How many aggressive driving incidents occur in your jurisdiction? How many do other motorists report to police? How many do police discover during a vehicle crash investigation? How many unreported incidents are estimated to occur? (You would need to conduct a survey of motorists to obtain this information.)
        • What harms do you know aggressive driving is causing in your jurisdiction? Vehicle crashes? Injuries? Psychological trauma (e.g., fear)?
        • Who brings the incidents to police attention? Are they mostly on-views, technology-initiated, citizen-reported, or some combination?
        • What are the most prevalent and/or most dangerous aggressive driving behaviors in your jurisdiction?
        • What types of events trigger the aggressive driving incidents?
        • How concerned is the community about aggressive driving?


        • Are there certain driver profiles that stand out in your jurisdiction (eg., the antisocial or competitive drivers described earlier)?
        • What do aggressive drivers say about their motivations for driving aggressively?
        • What proportion of cited aggressive drivers are repeat offenders?


        • Are most victims/complainants also engaging in aggressive driving behaviors before documented incidents?
        • Are most victims/complainants engaging in nonaggressive behaviors that typically irritate other drivers (e.g., driving slowly in the left lane)?
        • What do you know about the demographics of victims/complainants (e.g., age, gender, race, and ethnicity)?
        • Are there any tensions among different demographic groups contributing to the aggressive driving complaints?


        • Where do aggressive driving incidents typically occur?
        • Are there environmental factors at hot spots that contribute to the incidence of aggressive driving (e.g., road construction, confusing intersections, congested roads)?
        • Are there situational factors related to the location that contribute to the incidence of aggressive driving?
        • Are most incidents on freeways, arterials, collectors, or residential streets?
        • When do most incidents occur (time of day, day of week, special occasions, seasons)? What is it about these times that contribute to aggressive driving?

        Current Responses

        • How do police respond to aggressive driving complaints?
        • To what extent do police officers actively look for and intervene in aggressive driving?
        • How many citations/arrests do police issue/make for aggressive driving offenses?
        • What penalties or other sentences are typically imposed on those convicted for aggressive driving offenses?

        Measuring Your Effectiveness

        Measurement allows you to determine to what degree your efforts have succeeded, and suggests how you might modify your responses if they are not producing the intended results.

        You should take measures of your problem before you implement responses, to determine how serious the problem is, and after you implement them, to determine whether they have been effective.

        It starts with an introduction which offers a definition of aggressive driving (1), (2) and (3), and further explains the issue (4). Finally it ends with the premise/thesis statement which clearly states the stand taken by the writer (5).

        You should take all measures in both the target area and the surrounding area. For more detailed guidance on measuring effectiveness, see the Problem-Solving Tools Guide No. 1, Assessing Responses to Problems: An Introductory Guide for Police Problem-Solvers.

        The following are potentially useful measures of the effectiveness of responses to aggressive driving:

        • reduced number of crashes in which aggressive driving is a contributing/causal factor, broken down by property damage only, injury, and fatality;
        • reduced severity of injuries;
        • reduced number of citizen reports and requests for police response (these may increase initially if citizens are encouraged to report aggressive driving more often); and
        • improved driver perceptions of safety.

        Responses to the Problem of Aggressive Driving

        Your analysis of your local problem should give you a better understanding of the factors contributing to it. Once you have analyzed your local problem and established a baseline for measuring effectiveness, you should consider possible responses to address the problem.

        The following response strategies provide a foundation of ideas for addressing your particular problem. These strategies are drawn from a variety of research studies and police reports. Several of these strategies may apply to your community's problem.

        It is critical that you tailor responses to local circumstances, and that you can justify each response based on reliable analysis. In most cases, an effective strategy will involve implementing several different responses. Law enforcement responses alone are seldom effective in reducing or solving the problem.

        Do not limit yourself to considering what police can do: carefully consider whether others in your community share responsibility for the problem and can help police better respond to it. In some cases, you made need to shift the responsibility of responding toward those who have the capacity to implement more-effective responses..

        General Considerations for an Effective Response Strategy

        There are several response strategies that can effectively address aggressive driving, including enforcement, legislation, environmental and situational factors, public education, and judicial responses. A comprehensive strategy that blends tactics from each of these components and that addresses psychological, environmental, situational, and cultural factors is most likely to be effective.

        A comprehensive aggressive driving intervention should focus on reducing the likelihood that drivers will act aggressively and the aspects of the driving environment that precipitate aggressive behavior. A focus on drivers can occur at the individual or aggregate level. At the individual level, enforcement and sanctions can modify the behavior of identified aggressive drivers. At the aggregate level, data analysis can identify hot spots for targeted saturation and emphasis enforcement, and public education can impact group behavior. A focus on the driving environment can lead to interventions that mitigate the physical and social environments and situational stressors that contribute to aggressive driving.

        Specific Responses To Reduce Aggressive Driving

        Enforcing Traffic Laws

        Traffic enforcement to address aggressive driving has three primary goals:

        • to deter the cited driver from driving aggressively again in the future,
        • to deter other drivers who learn about police enforcement from driving aggressively, and
        • to remove aggressive drivers from the roads while they are angry and most dangerous.

        Deterrence is advanced through significant fines or other consequences such as jail time, and through high-visibility enforcement.

        Enforcement provides only partial deterrence to aggressive driving because of police staffing limitations. Most of the time, police do not catch drivers who violate the law. Risk-inclined drivers are less likely than the general driving population to accurately gauge the likelihood of being caught.

        If you are considering emphasizing aggressive driving enforcement, you should narrowly define the scope of the intervention, deciding which observable behaviors and sites you should target, what the ticketing threshold will be, what information you will collect, what type of enforcement you will deploy, what deployment schedule you should use, and what planned project to implement.

        You should also consider what types of partners should be involved; whether you will undertake efforts to educate the general public as part of the project; what type of education and sanctions will be in place for offenders; and whether construction, weather, or other situational variables are likely to affect the project.

        Geographic Information System or GIS mapping of aggressive driving hot spots can help you target your efforts where the need is greatest. You can identify hot spots based on information such as traffic or speed survey findings, collision and fatality data, and citation data. You can compare aggressive driving or road rage hot spots with felony and drug crime hot spots to increase the value of hot-spot enforcement.

        1. Deploying surveillance technologies. Surveillance technologies can increase the pervasiveness of enforcement, creating greater saturation and increasing both the likelihood of apprehending offenders and their perception of that likelihood. This increased saturation enhances deterrence.

        You can use surveillance technologies for automatic enforcement through mailed citations. They also help you collect data about aggressive driving behaviors such as speeding and running red lights.

        There is a variety of surveillance technologies you can use to apprehend and deter aggressive drivers, such as the following:

        • Red-light photo-enforcement cameras.
        • Automatic number-plate recognition technology in aggressive-driving hot spots.
        • Closed circuit television or CCTV at aggressive-driving hot spots, construction zones, or high-collision intersections that can detect unusual traffic patterns and illegal maneuvers and capture license plate data for automatic enforcement or mailed warnings.
        • Video-equipped patrol cars recording drivers' behavior and police stops.
        • Video-equipped unmarked cars to follow aggressive drivers before marked-car vehicle stops.
        • Tailgating detection devices for fleet vehicles.
        • Road sensors and cameras working in concert to detect illegal passing.
        • Electronic speed displays attached to speed-limit signs.
        • Crash reconstruction software that allows investigators to clear congested roads quickly.
        • Downstream lights that allow traffic enforcement officers to cite red-light runners without being physically present in dangerous intersections.
        • Telephone-reporting hotlines connected with police follow-up procedures such as keeping a database for use in future investigations, mailing citations, mailing warnings, or mailing anger-management or aggressive-driving-avoidance tip cards.
        • Data from vehicles equipped with event data recorders (EDR) could be subpoenaed to support aggressive driving investigations and prosecutions. Data typically recorded include whether the driver was speeding, whether the driver was pressing the brakes, and whether the driver was wearing a seatbelt.
        Some jurisdictions, including that of the Pennsylvania State Police, access data from vehicle EDR when investigating crashes.

      The purpose of electronic surveillance is both to facilitate detection and apprehension, and to promote self-monitoring of driving behavior. Cameras have succeeded in achieving substantial reductions in speeding, and red-light cameras have succeeded in reducing infractions, injuries, and fatalities.40 Nonetheless, visibility would have to be very high, or surveillance widespread, for enforcement alone to impact risk-inclined drivers. Antisocial drivers, especially, are likely to be difficult to influence with negative reinforcement because they tend to overestimate the benefits and underestimate the risks of their aggressive driving behaviors.

      You should consult your state codes to ensure that camera- and mail-based ticketing is permitted, and laws should be amended, as necessary, before enforcement programs' initiation.41 If your jurisdiction decides to use electronic surveillance and enforcement, you should first gauge public support for using such technology. Publicizing the contemplated use of surveillance technology allows you to assess the public's reaction before implementation. You might also consider issuing warnings for a set period before issuing citations. An evaluation program should be designed before police issue citations.42

      Non-technology-based surveillance, such as when police monitor aggressive driving from aircraft, highway overpasses, and unmarked cars, is also used around the country to apprehend and deter aggressive driving. Some types work well with technology-based enforcement.

      2. Conducting high-visibility enforcement. High-visibility enforcement has the effect of calming the driving behavior of a greater number of motorists than those police actually stop. Using marked vehicles can increase visibility, as well as adding magnetic "aggressive driving patrol" signs to enforcement vehicles.

      Example of high-visibility aggressive driving enforcement. Source: Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.

      3. Conducting "centipede" enforcement. In centipede enforcement, six or more speed enforcement cars are placed approximately two miles apart to stop speeding drivers who think it is safe to speed up after passing a police officer who has pulled another driver over. Centipede enforcement is useful for apprehending aggressive drivers by distinguishing them from motorists who maintain lower speeds after they pass the initial visible enforcement officer.

      4. Conducting enforcement crackdowns. Aggressive driving enforcement crackdowns, properly timed and executed, can be effective.†

      For example, saturation police patrols on congested streets or around aggressive driving hot spots focus enforcement geographically. In addition to enforcing actual aggressive driving violations, enforcing precursors or actions that commonly trigger aggressive driving—such as blocking intersections during rush hour, failing to yield the right-of-way, and abruptly changing lanes—can also help reduce aggressive driving.
      An argumentative essay tries to change the reader’s mind by convincing the reader to agree with the writer’s point of view.

      5. Referring habitual aggressive drivers to state licensing agencies. Where police officers have ready access to motorists' driving histories, they can determine whether the current aggressive driving violation reflects a pattern of similar driving. If so, the officer might then refer the driver to the state licensing agency for consideration of a license suspension or revocation.

      6. Checking records of portable electronic device use. If officers suspect that aggressive driving occurred in conjunction with the driver's use of a cell phone, personal digital assistant, or other distracting technologies, they should check those devices' electronic records to verify their time of use and, perhaps, the nature of the communication. Enhanced penalties may apply.

      Enhancing Legislation and Regulation

      Efforts to address aggressive driving should include a review of your jurisdiction's current regulatory environment. This will help determine whether police agencies have legislative authority to address aggressive driving effectively.

      A robust aggressive-driving regulatory environment would include the following:

      • A statutory definition of aggressive driving exists and does not require that intent to harm be proved, but rather is based on objective driving behaviors. Intent to harm is difficult to prove in court.
      • Criminal statutes and sentencing guidance provide for enhanced penalties for violence arising from road incidents.
      • A range of judicial sanctions exist for aggressive driving, including fines; jail time; license suspensions and revocations; vehicle confiscation, booting, or impounding; anger management treatment; probation; and enhanced penalties for repeat violators.
      • Police are authorized to cite drivers on the basis of camera, laser, and other technological evidence.
      • Police are authorized to use unmarked vehicles for traffic enforcement.
      • Police are authorized to work in teams in which the officer issuing the citation is not the same officer who witnessed the incident.

      7. Defining and prohibiting aggressive driving in the state vehicle code. At a minimum, aggressive driving should be defined in the state traffic code and sanctions prescribed. States and localities vary widely in terms of whether they have aggressive driving laws in place and how they define aggressive driving. Arizona, Nevada, and Delaware developed aggressive driving prohibitions in the late 1990s, and other states have since followed suit. Arizona defines aggressive driving as the co-occurrence of speeding and two other traffic violations that create an immediate danger to another. The law includes a list of violations that meet the terms of the definition, including failing to obey a traffic signal, passing on the shoulder, unsafely changing lanes, tailgating, or failing to yield. Other parts of the state's traffic code separately define each of these violations.

      8. Restricting window tinting. Window tinting increases driver anonymity, thus lowering inhibitions to aggressive driving. Restricting the level of front window tinting reduces driver anonymity. Some states regulate the percentage of light that window tinting can block. Rules vary widely by state.

      9. Requiring Intelligent Speed Adaptation systems in large vehicle fleets.Intelligent Speed Adaptation systems can be installed in vehicles to notify drivers and/or automatically slow vehicles when drivers exceed speed limits. While private vehicle owners may not choose to use such technology, these systems could help improve professional drivers' driving habits when the entire fleet uses them.

      Removing or Modifying Environmental and Situational Triggers

      Certain environmental changes are known to reduce aggressive driving. For example, more efficient use of existing road capacity can improve traffic flow, better aligning natural human behavior with desired driving behavior. Engineering efforts such as coordinated signals, high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes, shoulders converted into merge lanes, and similar measures can improve traffic flow. Non-road efforts, such as telecommuting and flexible work schedules, can also increase road-use efficiency.43

      Environmental and situational responses are varied, and can include strategies that address vehicles' features, traffic signals' operation, road features, signs, and other means for providing additional information to drivers and traffic-calming techniques. Many of the following environmental strategies reflect Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles,† or what traffic engineers call ergonomic strategies.

      10. Timing traffic signals to reduce aggressive driving triggers. Traffic-signal timing can influence driver frustration and anger and can facilitate safe and nonfrustrating driving.44 Ensuring adequate green signal times to reduce driver waits and frustration, eliminating excessively long red signals, ensuring appropriate signal-change intervals, and coordinating or synchronizing traffic signals all permit traffic to flow more smoothly and irritate drivers less.

      11. Enhancing traffic-signal and street-sign visibility. Low traffic-signal visibility puts drivers in the position of having to make last-second driving decisions, which could increase driver errors and violations. Easy-to-see signal housings and signs that provide advance warning about approaching signals on roads with high speeds and/or short sight distances can enhance traffic-signal visibility. Sufficient signal brightness is also important to help drivers clear intersections quickly. Clear and highly visible street signs help drivers find their way and also reduce last-second driving decisions.

      12. Improving drivers' commute information in congested areas. The more drivers know about what to expect on their commutes, the better prepared they are to handle delays calmly. Information can reduce driver frustration in situations where congestion and time urgency could combine to trigger aggression. There are many ways that transportation departments have enhanced drivers' information about their driving environment on freeways. Such tactics include signs that inform drivers of traffic delays, their causes, alternate routes, and estimated arrival times to urban centers. Added information gives drivers a sense of control and the option to choose alternate routes.

      Providing drivers with more information about their commutes can help them to handle delays calmly. Source: Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.

      13. Clarifying appropriate merging zones. Clarifying where drivers should merge can reduce all drivers' frustration. This can be achieved by using signs and painted indications on the road, for example, an arrow with the words "Merge Here" painted nearby. Merging can be encouraged late or early, as long as all drivers have the same idea about the point at which they should start merging. From a traffic-flow perspective, appropriate merging involves cars' using all lanes and merging at a fair speed rather than forming a single queue early and coming to a near stop.

      14. Providing speed and distance indicators in areas where speeding or tailgating is common. When drivers are reminded of the law and their own driving behavior, they often monitor themselves and self-enforce driving rules. Police widely use digital speed-limit signs that indicate the legal limit and the speed of the approaching driver to remind drivers to slow down in areas where speeding is common. Similarly, painted dots on the road can indicate appropriate driving distance for the road's speed. Based on road speed limits and safe following distances, painted indicators can help drivers gauge their distance from the car ahead and remind them that safe following distances are important. Painted chevrons create the illusion of a narrowing roadway, thereby reducing driving speeds.45

      The use of painted chevrons has been successful at reducing driving speeds. Source: Virginia Community Policing Institute.

      15. Using traffic-calming features in neighborhoods where speeding is common. Traffic calming describes a wide range of road and environmental design changes that either make it more difficult for a vehicle to speed or make drivers believe they should slow down for safety. Some commonly used physical features include flat-topped speed bumps that double as crosswalks, traffic circles, radar speed signs, and road markings. Visual cues include street trees and streetlights. Tested traffic-calming approaches create self-enforcing behavior in drivers.†

      16. Maximizing the use of existing roads. In already congested areas, adding road capacity is not feasible, for either lack of funding or space. You can use existing road capacity more effectively, however. Measures such as coordinating traffic-signal timing, using HOV lanes and promoting nontraditional work hours and arrangements all reduce congestion without requiring added road capacity.

      17. Modifying physical road features. Sometimes modifying existing road features can reduce triggers for aggressive driving. By converting shoulders to merge lanes, congestion at peak traffic times can be somewhat mitigated. Creating right-sized freeway entrance and exit ramps that allow for effective merging can also reduce congestion. Converting shoulders into well-designed bus and bike lanes encourages alternatives to vehicle use. Limiting road construction and repair work to off-peak hours also reduces congestion and removes an aggressive driving trigger.

      Educating Drivers

      In public health matters such as road safety, primary prevention is generally considered the most effective approach to reducing injury. Although a small percentage of drivers are responsible for most traffic incidents, a primary prevention approach gets the prevention message out to all drivers.

      Deterrence is heightened when society stigmatizes the behavior in question. Potentially aggressive drivers weigh the likelihood of negative consequences such as fines, increased insurance, vehicle damage, injury, and social stigma against the rewards of breaking traffic laws, namely enjoyment and efficient mobility. Antisocial drivers are partially immune to the deterrent effects of most negative consequences because they underestimate their personal risk, but both antisocial and competitive drivers are interested in maintaining their image, thus making them susceptible to social stigma's influence.

      According to an advertising executive, "We need to raise the salience of the embarrassment that…their failure to contain their rage on the road will make them appear foolish and pathetic. The most powerful deterrent to road rage will be the damage it might do to [an aggressive driver's] image.... If people who are prone to road rage are to maintain their cool, it will be because, by doing so, they can avoid social disapproval."46

      18. Stigmatizing aggressive driving through public information campaigns. The most promising education approach for educating antisocial drivers involves stigmatizing aggressive driving behaviors in much the same way advertising campaigns transformed social perceptions of drunken driving.47 Such a campaign targeting the young white male demographic from which most antisocial drivers are drawn is more likely to reduce aggressive driving than a general prevention campaign.†

      19. Addressing aggressive driving in drivers' education curricula. Mandatory aggressive driving components in driver's education can instruct young people, who are more at risk for aggressive driving, in the triggers, dangers, and consequences of such behavior.48 Virginia includes information about avoiding aggressive driving behaviors in its mandatory drivers' education curriculum.

      20. Providing primary education on avoiding aggressive drivers. The general public could likely benefit from education about how to avoid becoming the victim or aggressor in a driving violence or aggressive driving incident.49 Education-based responses include the following:

      • a media and public outreach campaign to stigmatize aggressive driving behaviors;
      • a media campaign promoting safe parking-lot etiquette;
      • road signs with public education messages, for example, signs reminding slower traffic to keep right, clear street signs to help drivers find their way, and signs that inform drivers about their obligation to share the road with cyclists in areas where bicycling is common;
      • officers' providing educational materials to cited drivers; and
      • educational programs for new, young drivers, focused on the social aspects of driving and avoiding aggressive driving offending and victimization.

      21. Training professional drivers in aggressive driving prevention. Professional drivers, such as those who drive large trucks, taxis, and buses, should receive special training concerning general driving attitudes and avoiding aggressive behaviors as a condition of their employment.50 Company policies against aggressive driving behaviors, vehicle monitoring and regulating devices, and surveillance of drivers' behavior can complement training.

      22. Encouraging employer monitoring of professional drivers' driving. Commercial fleets that used "How's my driving?" bumper stickers reduced crashes between 20 percent and 53 percent.51 Some companies have hired trained safety consultants with law enforcement or fleet management experience to report to the company on their commercial drivers' driving behavior. Such consultants can surveil drivers' behavior patterns in a variety of situations and provide credible, professional feedback to employers.

      It should be noted that this essay uses statistics to support the main idea. This lends credibility to the argument.

      Enhancing the Consequences of Aggressive Driving

      23. Requiring anger management treatment for aggressive drivers. Anger management treatment may be beneficial to aggressive drivers, risky drivers, impaired drivers, and drivers convicted of violent offenses. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anger management has proved effective in reducing anger.52 Court referral to anger management treatment has been demonstrated effective in reducing aggressive driving.53 Traffic court judges in some states can refer aggressive driving offenders to anger management treatment or traffic safety education, in addition to imposing fines and jail time. Both the Maryland and Virginia suburbs of Washington, D.C., have anger management treatment options available to traffic court judges. The National Center for State Courts examined these programs, but an insufficient number of referrals took place to support a program outcome evaluation.

      Many jurisdictions already have post-conviction programs to address impaired drivers' needs. These programs are often required as a condition of license reinstatement. One researcher concluded, "Currently, available evidence provides strong support that these programs can reduce subsequent recidivism and collisions and may provide additional health and social benefits as well."54 Court-based anger management programs require provider training and certification and eligibility guideline checklists for judges to use in making referrals.

      Courts could also require that aggressive drivers with alcohol and/or mental health issues seek treatment for those problems as part of their diversion or sentence.55 Judges must be trained and willing to make referrals, and police officers must be trained to write citations in a way that will indicate to judges that the defendant is a candidate for referral to anger management for aggressive driving.

      Courts may not have sufficient numbers of eligible offenders to keep treatment programs open if only aggressive driving offenders are eligible. Because reckless and aggressive driving are interrelated and involve some of the same behaviors, it may make most sense to have both be eligible offenses, although reckless drivers should not be automatically referred, as they may not have anger management problems.

      Drivers identified by courts in other matters as having anger control issues such as intermittent explosive disorder, or other indicators that a person is highly vulnerable to acting aggressively, could be referred to state licensing agencies for license restrictions or additional education requirements. License restrictions are commonly used for physical and mental health issues that could impact driving safety. While treatment for convicted aggressive driving offenders has been successfully piloted, treatment for persons not yet charged with aggressive driving has not been evaluated.

      24. Requiring vehicle-based monitoring systems to enforce driving restrictions. Judges can also impose certain driving restrictions on aggressive drivers. Vehicle-based monitoring systems can include ignition locks and intelligent speed adaptation systems that report supervised drivers' speeding to the court.

      Responses With Limited Effectiveness

      25. Discouraging aggressive driving through general publicity campaigns. General publicity campaigns designed to alter drivers' attitudes toward aggressive driving have failed to reduce collisions.56 Aggressive drivers tend to be those who underestimate their risk of apprehension and overestimate their driving skill. They respond to trivial triggers that activate reservoirs of latent anger. Such drivers are unlikely to be swayed by logic and reason.

      Summary of Responses

      The table below summarizes the responses to aggressive driving, the means by which they are intended to work, the conditions under which they should work best, and some factors you should consider before implementing a particular response. It is critical that you tailor responses to local circumstances, and that you can justify each response based on reliable analysis. In most cases, an effective strategy will involve implementing several different responses. Law enforcement responses alone are seldom effective in reducing or solving the problem.

      Improving Opportunities for Secure but Convenient Storage # Response How It Works Works Best If… Considerations Enforcing Traffic Laws 1 Deploying surveillance technologies It increases the probability of detection ...the problem is well-defined, the response is based on analysis of incident and hot- spot data, environmental issues have already been addressed, and the public is notified and educated before enforcement occurs Surveillance systems require staff to install and maintain them, officer and staff training in use of equipment and data interpretation, and coordination with your jurisdiction's transportation department 2 Conducting high- visibility enforcement It increases the probability of detection and deters aggressive driving is done in aggressive driving hot spots and in conjunction with other awareness-raising techniques It should take place intensively or frequently, both resource-intensive propositions 3 Conducting "centipede" enforcement It increases the probability of detection ...drivers are generally aware of the enforcement effort, but cannot predict exactly when and where it will occur It is staff-intensive; it works only as long as drivers continue to be surprised

      4 Conducting enforcement crackdowns It increases the probability of detection and/or the consequences to the driver ...locations are selected based on analysis of crime and GIS data It can be staff-intensive and sometimes practical only on an overtime basis; experienced personnel can be more efficient in detecting aggressive driving Referring habitual aggressive drivers to state licensing agencies It deters aggressive drivers by restricting their driving privileges ...officers can readily access driving records Providing access to new data systems can be complex, time-consuming, and costly; drivers may disregard licensing restrictions 6 Checking records of portable electronic device use It increases the probability of linking crashes to aggressive driving behaviors ...enhanced penalties apply to driving offenses that occur while drivers are using portable electronic devices Checking device records may be burdensome, so this response should be used when called for by the severity of the offense and/or when a link to distracting technology is clear # Response How It Works Works Best If… Considerations Enhancing Legislation and Regulation 7 Defining and prohibiting aggressive driving in the state vehicle code It clarifies for drivers and police officers what constitutes aggressive driving and provides for appropriate penalties ...the statute is based on observable behaviors and not on proving driver intent, and police enforcement is robust It may require new legislation 8 Restricting window tinting It removes driver anonymity and thereby deters aggressive driving ...the law restricts tinting of both front and side windows After-market window tinting combines with factory tinting, so the law must address the percentage of light transmitted inside the vehicle after both types of tinting are applied Requiring Intelligent Speed Adaptation systems in large vehicle fleets It physically restricts vehicles from reaching excessively high speeds is limited to large vehicle fleets where one organization owns the vehicles and employs the drivers Regulatory requirements impose a cost burden on private-sector businesses # Response How It Works Works Best If… Considerations Removing or Modifying Environmental and Situational Triggers Timing traffic signals to reduce aggressive driving triggers It reduces drivers' frustration is part of an overall effort to reduce environmental triggers of aggressive driving Traffic engineers must carry it out 11 Enhancing traffic- signal and street- sign visibility It reduces drivers' frustration is part of a local transportation department's capital improvement plan or annual survey process It requires equipment purchase, installation, and maintenance funding 12 Improving drivers' commute information in congested areas It reduces drivers' frustration is focused on areas with congested commute routes It may require state transportation departments' cooperation 13 Clarifying appropriate merging zones It clarifies driving expectations and thereby reduces drivers' frustration ...drivers understand and comply with merging directives It is relatively inexpensive to implement; it would benefit from media exposure for public education 14 Providing speed and distance indicators in areas where speeding or tailgating is common It reminds drivers to drive safely ...indicators are installed in areas where speeding and tailgating are common It is relatively inexpensive; it works to raise drivers' internal controls, so it likely will reduce aggressive driving behaviors in average drivers; it is less likely to affect committed aggressive drivers Using traffic- calming features in neighborhoods where speeding is common It makes it more difficult and risky to speed ...the features are placed in residential neighborhoods and areas where a cohesive physical and visual environment exists or can be created It is in the purview of neighborhood planners and traffic engineers rather than police, and it is easier to integrate seamlessly when neighborhoods are initially designed. 16 Maximizing the use of existing roads It reduces drivers' frustration due to traffic congestion is part of a comprehensive traffic-flow strategy Some of these strategies have large policy implications, such as promoting telecommuting and flexible work schedules; it may require the cooperation of government and corporate leaders 17 Modifying physical road features It reduces drivers' frustration ...road features are well-designed such that they reduce rather than increase drivers' frustration Some physical features are very expensive to alter; it should be considered for both new and existing roads # Response How It Works Works Best If… Considerations
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