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Classroom Behavior and Management Theories Essay - 2743 Words


    • I have chosen to research the classroom behavior and management theories of Judicious Discipline and Love and Logic: Taking Control of the Classroom,. I will attempt to summarize, in some detail, the authors’ findings and compare and contrast their main points.
      When it is necessary to reprimand students, a teacher should keep more towards the instructional end of how that student could improve their behavior as oppose to simply accusing the student of committing an inappropriate behavior for most positive results (Margutti, 328). Expressing disappointment over anger is also a more effective approach (Margutti, 310). However, the teacher must express why they are disappointed by explicitly detailing what action disappointed them (Margutti, 310; 312). Also, a suggestion by the teacher of what a more appropriate reaction or behavior would have been allows the student to know what is expected of them in the future (Margutti, 312).

      I will discuss how these two models influence and agree with, or contradict my own behavior management beliefs. Furthermore, I address how these strategies can be used in the classroom and offer my suggestions on the usefulness or uselessness of these theories regarding my own personal philosophy of classroom and behavior management.
      Disruptive behavior and discipline problems are some of the top concerns of school staff and community members today (Sugai, 37). How do schools approach school discipline? What is their philosophy around behavior reform? How does this trickle down to teachers in the classroom? Problems with classroom management are some of the most common reasons new teachers leave their jobs (Sugai, 37; Ismail, 883). This paper aims to answer some of these questions and provide some insight as to the most effective means of behavior and classroom management. First it will discuss some common classroom problems and where those problems may come from. Next some possible solutions and approaches to how a teacher might handle problems within the classroom are suggested. Finally an exploration of two different schoolwide approaches to behavioral issues provided.


      Students are then taught that rights in a democracy must always be balanced with social responsibilities.
      The rights and interests of a school's society can be summed up in four compelling state interests.
      As stated previously, most new teachers’ greatest challenges have to do with classroom management and discipline. These behaviors can pop up in many different forms such as lack of motivation, rule breaking, unwillingness to follow routines, lack of interaction in the classroom, and behavioral issues (Ismail, 881). The cause of these issues can come from students or teachers and most often arise from where the two meet in the middle.

      They represent legal reasons why educational institutions operate and maintain safe, disciplined, and proper educational environments. The four compelling state interests serve as a framework for rules and expectations.
      Implementation of this policy often starts with administrative support and a small purpose statement as to why this new policy is being adapted (Sugai, 40). A leadership team often comprised of faculty, staff, and parents are assembled to be well-trained in the practices of PBS and serve as supports for the rest of the school community to implement PBS correctly and affectively (Sugai, 40). In order for PBS to be sustained, a continuum for consequences of rule breaking must be developed, teachers must monitor a student’s behavioral progress, feedback, including positive feedback should be given to students regularly, and the creation and execution of ceremonies and events that focus on the positives, not the negatives of student behavior must occur (Sugai, 40).

      Judicious Discipline presents four compelling state interests as the basis for classroom rules:
      Ø Property Loss and Damage: an interest which acts as steward for the care and appropriate use of individual and state owned property.
      One thing teachers shouldn’t assume is that students are coming into class everyday in a place where they are ready and willing to learn (Pane, 88). There are many factors outside of a student’s life that can affect their behavior and attitude in the classroom. One of the most prevalent causes of classroom misbehavior is family related issues (Ismail, 883). These family related issues can also be broken down into smaller more specific categories depending on where an individual might live. For example, one of the leading causes of behavioral problems in Turkey led back to a student’s family’s problems in relation to their socioeconomic status where as in England, most problems traced back to a student’s divorced parents (Ismail 883). Interestingly, how these problems are manifested in the classroom (noisy talking, inappropriate movement, disturbing friends, etc), despite their cause, are similar across the world (Ismail, 882).


      Ø Threat to Health and Safety: an interest that serves a fundamental purpose of government to protect the health and safety of students who attend public schools.
      Ø Legitimate Educational Purpose: an interest that keeps in countenance administrators', teachers', and the educational institution's license to make arbitrary decisions that are based on sound educational practice and the mission of the school.
      Ø Serious Disruption of the Educational Process: an interest empowering schools with the professional responsibility to deny student rights that seriously disrupt student activities.
      These four interests make typical classroom rules such as "Be safe. Protect our property. Do your best work. Respect the needs of others." These…
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      • Using Functional Behavior Assessment to Improve Classroom Management

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        As I have observed this teacher during my planning period, I had walked into her classroom first-hour class several minutes before the bell rings there was a group of students who have arrived early.

      Several of them are teasing a lone student who is crying.
      With these problems in mind, there are several ways teachers can improve the way they establish classroom environment and handle behavioral issues that can make for a less disruptive classroom atmosphere. Many behavioral issues arise when there is not a clear rule and routine establishment at the beginning of a course, since students won’t have clear expectations of their behavior in the class (Ismail, 888). Also, many classroom ecologists emphasize how an activity is planned, organized, and executed will often dictate what behavior in the classroom is like (Walter, 49). For example, project-based work often helps to motivate students making them more engaged in class and less likely to act out (Ismail, 888). Having the necessary materials and resources for an activity also contributes to the success of that activity’s ability to engage students (Ismail, 888). A problem that affects student engagement that a teacher might not be able to control, but should be aware of is class size (Ismail, 888). It is much harder to manage and catch every behavioral issue in a class with a large amount of students (Ismail, 888). Other solutions to improving classroom behavior include improvement of the teacher’s qualifications, regulating and structuring the curriculum, organizing motivational activities, reorganizing the classroom seating plan, understanding reasons behind behavior so that a more direct solution can be found, and meeting with parents (Ismail, 881).

      This student has never been a problem for any teacher that teaches him. So, after observing this, a student had come into her classroom spending all class time joking around or debating the inherent value of the lesson and assignments she is giving…

      The aspects of withitness, momentum and smoothness, group alerting, overlapping, and challenge arousal are all important when trying to reduce classroom misbehavior.

      The teacher’s ability to know what’s going on in all parts of the classroom at all times is essential and makes the students pay attention because they never know if the teacher is watching them.
      One of the largest factors that affect misbehaviors is the environment that the teacher establishes in the classroom (Margutti, 311). Factors that might affect a teacher’s ability to maintain good ecology within the classroom include complexity of the activity at hand, number of students in the classroom, time constraints and therefore pacing of the lesson, demands of the work assigned to students, the ability and willingness of the students to engage with the lesson, where the students are at emotionally and socially, and the quality of the relationship between the students and the teacher (Walter, 49). Disruptions are often found during a transitional period between activities when structure and order from the teacher are lacking (Margutti, 313). Some personal problems that could affect a teacher’s ability to manage a class are problems between the teacher and administration, problems with the teacher’s ability to relay information to the class, technical and logistical issues, and personal problems that the teacher might be having outside of the classroom (Ismail, 883).

      The factor of momentum and smoothness is also important because the teacher needs to get lessons started promptly, smoothly, and provide transitions…

      There are several expectation examples that would demonstrate how a medium and high control management style would develop students to be self-disciplined and autonomous.

      William Glasser’s “Choice Theory” is an example of a medium control approach that enables students to realize they chose their behavior; this helps student’s think about their actions before they misbehave and realize afterwards if they made the right decision based on expectations and consequences.
      Particularly difficult situations can arise when students and teachers come from very different backgrounds. For example, a teacher’s expectations of different students could lie in unconscious biases due to stereotypes (Pane, 89). It’s important for teachers to recognize both where they are coming from and that many of their students have not shared the same life experiences or have to deal with the same life struggles as the teacher; they will have different cultural backgrounds. However, by taking the time to learn about their students’ backgrounds, a teacher can use a culturally responsive pedagogy to reach and engage all students (Pane, 89). In a culturally responsive pedagogy, teachers view both themselves and others with high regard, see all students as successful, can connect themselves, their communities, their nation, and their world identities, gather information from their students, create equitable relationships with students, believe that knowledge is something that can be passionately shared, view a requirement of their job as helping students develop necessary skills, and understand that excellence is a complex standard that must take students’ backgrounds into account (Pane, 89).

      Another technique of Glasser…

      I always focus on controlling or for a better word directing the behavior. When a child misbehaves, it should be stated and focused on his behavior, not the child. So the child will know that you always care for him, but do not care for his bad or misjudged behavior.

      PBS action within the school begins with the first tier, in which all students are exposed to a “formal, positive, preventative, social-skills curriculum that supports the academic mission of the school” (Sugai, 37). This effort should be exposed to students in all settings within the school and also often manifests as a separate class (Sugai, 38). If executed well, this initiative should have an effect on 70-80% of the student body towards more positive behavior within the classroom. The remaining 20-30% may receive further counseling and guidance in the second and third tiers (Sugai, 38). In tier two, students receive extra, intensified care in small groups to work on their specific behavioral problems (Sugai, 38). If the student still struggles with behavioral problems, then they receive more one on one help in tier three (Sugai, 38). Here, there are high levels of adult contact and monitoring, possible special education help, frequent positive reinforcement, and very specific help pertaining to the child’s specialized needs (Sugai, 38).

      By explaining to the child, “It is your behavior that upset me, not you!” will make him understand and want to correct his behavior. Young people are curious creatures who always seek to learn more about the world.
      A different schoolwide policy used by many schools is a positive behavior support (PBS) system which views behavior problems in the classroom not as mere disruptions to other students’ ability to learn, but as signals for further assistance. This three-tiered framework helps to implement schoolwide practices of positive behavior and decrease behavioral problems in the school (Sugai, 37). It seems to be very effective since schools that have implemented PBS have seen a decrease in disciplinary actions taken, an increase in perceived behavioral health within the school, and an increase in academic achievement (Sugai, 40-41).

      They also want to…

      Managing Classroom Behavior and Learning in the Primary Classroom

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      behaviour management, which extends from each child as a unique individual to the whole school ethos, can create effective learning. This coincides with clear expectations for behaviour in order to allow learning to happen.

      Behavior management should not simply be reacting to the negative, but teaching the positive behaviors that are expected (Sugai, 39). Most students will be well-equipped with the social and emotional skills needed to behave properly in a classroom. Therefore, when behavioral issues arise, they should be seen as a sign that that student needs more help and guidance emotionally and socially than other students (Sugai, 39). Just as when it becomes clear that a student is struggling with academic skills and is provided extra support, so too should a student be provide extra support when they are struggling with their social and emotional skills.

      ‘A good school behaviour policy, agreed and communicated to all staff, governors, pupils, parents and carers, consistently applied, is the basis of an effective approach to managing behaviour.’ (HCEC, 2011, page 24) Schools are required to produce behaviour management policies…

      that “non-reinforcement leads to the extinction of a behavior.” In other words if teachers figure out what the child is getting from exhibiting a particular behavior, they can then give that child the exact opposite of the expected response. If our response is consistent the child will eventually give up the behavior in lieu of another which yields more satisfying results.

      Some factors having to do with the student themselves in the moment of disruption may include age, gender, time of day, part of the lesson being taught, seating arrangement, learning activity, and subject matter (Ismail 882-883). Clearly some of these in class reasons for disruption and misbehavior overlap with a teacher’s duties in the classroom.

      The reward system is sometimes turned around to reinforce poor behavior. Often, children who are misbehaving are looking for…

      Classroom Discipline and Management for the Beginning Teacher

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      In all classroom management is set up for students to learn and feel comfortable doing it. In order for students to learn, teachers must first create a positive environment for learning by implementing classroom management.

      Margutti, Piera. “Teachers’ Reproaches And Managing Discipline In The Classroom: When Teachers Tell Students What They Do “Wrong.” Linguistics And Education: An International Research Journal 22.4 (2011): 310-329. ERIC. Web. 29 Apr. 2012.

      “All classes should have a positive culture that reinforces certain values, such as respect and fairness, and makes students feel welcome and successful” (Brownell, 2001, p2). After all it’s what the teacher does and enforces that makes for good classroom management.
      Pane, Debra Mayes. “Viewing Classroom Discipline As Negotiable Social Interaction: A Communities Of Practice Perspective.” Teaching And Teacher Education: An International Journal Of Research And Studies 26.1 (2010): 87-97. ERIC. Web. 29 Apr. 2012.

      “A teacher’s…

      The key to orienting their attention in the classroom is to make learning meaningful and relevant to their lives. At the same time, learning can be hindered if a student’s basic needs are not being satisfied.

      Walter Doyle, et al. “How Can We Improve School Discipline?.”Educational Researcher 39.1 (2010): 48-58. ERIC. Web. 29 Apr. 2012.

      If students are in a position that they feel endangers their ability to fulfill their basic needs, it is likely that their learning will be compromised. During the adolescent years, the process of building self efficacy is accelerated. Therefore, it is essential that young people foster relationships…

      Classroom Rules Simple classroom rules created by the class will provide ownership and understanding.

      Sugai, George. “Beyond The Discipline Handbook: How Schools Can Implement A Positive Approach To Managing Student Behavior.”Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed For Quick Review 75.3 (2009): 37-41. ERIC. Web. 29 Apr. 2012.

      A daily review of the rules will reinforce expectations. The first week of each quarter will include a review of the explanations for the rules to reinforce the importance of rules. They will be posted throughout the classroom as reminders for the entire class. Johnny will have a visual representation taped to the top of his desk for continual cuing of expected behavior. (Sprick, Garrison &…

      Glasser’s Student Needs theory “focuses on personal choice, personal responsibility, and personal transformation” (Classroom Management Theorists and Theories/William Glasser, 2011, para. 2). According to Glasser, “all living creatures control their behavior to fulfill their need for satisfaction in one or more of the five areas: survival, to belong or be loved by others, power and importance, freedom and independence, and to have fun” (Classroom Management Theorists and Theories/William Glasser, 2011…

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