Cracking the AICP
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- 3. Are You Eligible?► Applicants must meet the following eligibility requirements before applying to take the examination: Be a current member of the American Planning Association (APA).
Be B engaged i professional planning, either currently or d in f i l l i ith tl in the past, as defined by AICP.
The majority of applicants apply right before the registration deadline. The volume of applications received at this time means more applications to review and a longer wait time to receive your status. Testing centers fill up, and you may have difficulty finding one with availabilities. Apply early to avoid these stresses.
Have completed, at the time of application submission completed submission, one of the combinations of education and corresponding years of professional planning experience
- 5. Professional Experience► Four criteria which applicants must respond Apply a planning process appropriate to the situation.
Project managers or people with substantial experience in the field sometimes take for granted the application process. APA is concerned not only with the number of years of planning experience but also with making sure the experience meets the established professional planning criteria. Experienced applicants should take care in making sure their responses meet each established professional planning criterion. For example, managers or directors should use examples that demonstrate their planning experience, not their administrative or managerial responsibilities, when responding to Criteria 1 and 2.
Employ an appropriately comprehensive point of view. Involve a professional level of responsibility and resourcefulness. Influence public decision making in the public interest. Note: Visit APA website for information pertaining to “Non- “Non-Traditional Planning Experience” http://www.
When finalizing your criteria responses, review to ensure that a person who has not done the exact same type of planning work can understand the project examples and duties that you discuss. This is especially important if you have worked in a very specialized area of planning. Your reviewer may not be
familiar with acronyms or specialty terminology, so review your responses for an appropriate level of clarity and explanation to ensure that someone versed in planning broadly will be comfortable that they understand your role and duties based on your description.
- 6. Test Background► 170 Multiple Choice Questions (20 are “pre- “pre-test” and not scored but you do not p y know which ones these are)► 3½ Hours to Complete► Score Scale 25 - 75► Passing is 55► Roughly 65% of Test Takers Pass Ro ghl Take s► Computer Test in Test Centers p
- 7. Test Center► Arrive30 minutes early for paper work► Take 2 forms of ID name must match► The center provides paper/pencil/calculator► Use the “Mark” button to review questions later
- 8. How Often Should You Study► APA recommends 40 hours of study► I recommend at least 100 hours► You need to memorize a lot of information► Study often, 1 or 2 hours each day► Get into a Study Group
- 9. Study Materials► AICP Test Prep. 2.0► Chapter Presidents Council Manual► AICP Code of Ethics► Other PowerPoint Prep Sessions► Other Chapters/Other Sections► Policy Guides► All lists on APA website
- 10. Study Materials (Outside Sources)► www.planetizen.com► www studystack com www.studystack.com (search AICP)► www.oyez.org (legal)► www.law.cornell.edu (legal)► Online Forums► APA Websites http://www.floridaplanning.org/treasurecoast/aicp_links.asp
- 11. Pass Rate Year People l Rate 2004 1,361 , 62% 2005 1,198 65%36% 2006 1,251 66% 64% 2007 1,327 66% Pass 2008 1,320 1 320 63% Fail May y 648 63% 2010
- 12. Whats on the Test What s► History, Theory and Law [15%]► Plan Making and Implementation [30%]► Functional Areas of Practice [25%]► Spatial Areas of Practice [15%]► Public Participation and Social Justice [10%]► AICP Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct [5%]
- 13. History, History Theory and Law [15%]► A. History of planning► B. Planning law B► C. Theory of planning► D. Patterns of human settlement
- 14. Plan Making and Implementation [30%]► A. A Visioning and goal setting► B. Quantitative and qualitative research methods► C. Collecting, organizing, analyzing, and reporting data and information► D. Demographics and economics D► E. Natural and built environment► F. Land use and development regulations► G. G Application of legal principles► H. Environmental analysis► I. Growth management techniques► J. Budgets and financing options► K. GIS/spatial analysis and information systems► L. Policy analysis and decision making► M. Development plan and project review p p p j► N. Program evaluation► O. Communications techniques► P. Intergovernmental relationships► Q. Stakeholder relationships► R. Project and program management
- 15. Functional Areas of Practice [25%]► A. A Community development► B. Comprehensive or long range planning► C. Development regulation or administration► D. Economic development and revitalization► E. Economic analysis and forecasting E► F. Educational, institutional, or military facilities planning► G. Energy policy► H. Food system planning► I. Growth management I► J. Hazard mitigation and disaster planning► K. Historic preservation► L. Housing► M. M Infrastructure► N. Labor force or employment► O. Land use► P. Natural resources and the environment► Q. Parks, open space and recreation Q Parks► R. Planning law► S. Policy planning► T. Public services► U. Social and health services U► V. Transportation► W. Urban design
- 16. Spatial Areas of Practice [15%]► A. Pl A Planning at national level i t ti ll l► B. Planning for multi-state or bi-state regions multi- bi-► C. C Planning for state► D. Planning for sub-state region sub-► E. Planning at county level E► F. Planning for urban areas► G. Planning for suburban areas► H. Planning for small town► I. Corridors► J. Neighborhoods► K. Waterfronts► L. Historic districts or areas► M. Downtowns
- 17. Public Participation and Social Justice [10%]► A. Public involvement planning► B. Public participation techniques B► C. Identifying, engaging, and serving underserved groups d d► D. Social justice issues, literature, and practice► E Wo king with diverse communities E. Working ith di e se comm nities► F. Coalition building g
- 18. AICP Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct [5%]► A: Principles to Which We Aspire► B: Our Rules of Conduct► C: Our Code Procedures
- 19. http://www.planning.org/certification/pdf/bulletin.pdf
- 20. Studying for the Test► You CANNOT study for the AICP linearly► Planning is interrelated and circular► If you try to study the sections as they are listed, li t d you will continuously go over the ill ti l th same information► Break the test down into sections (ie. people, places, dates, laws, law cases) people places dates laws
- 21. Alfred Bettman (1873-1945) (1873-► Cincinnati Plan (1925)► Argued Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty (1925) g g y( )► “Standard State Zoning Enabling Act” (1924)► “A Standard City Planning Enabling Act (1928) A Act”► Drafted a bill passed in Ohio in 1915 enabling the creation of local planning commissions► First president of the American Society of Planning Officials (ASPO, 1934)
- 22. Test Tips► No amount of studying will help you on every question► Fill in every question as you go► The test presents concepts broadly► Memorize all the court cases and historical figures► The questions are subjective► The answer was usually the “lesser” of four evils► “Planning in a bubble” and “by the book”► Study definitions -- do not let terms trip you up► THIS IS A NATIONAL CERTIFICATION
- 23. The Questions on The Test► Read and re-read the questions re-► The correct answer is the answer that is the “most right” or the “least wrong”► Many answers will be correct M ill b t► Some questions are written in a manner that will trick you
- 24. Planning Firsts► Comprehensive Plan - Cincinnati, OH (1925)► Council of Governments - C il f G t Detroit, D t it MI (1954)► Downtown Pedestrian Mall - Kalamazoo Mall (MI, 1956)► “Earth Day” - April 22, 1970► Forestry Service Director - Gifford Pinchot (1905)► Planning Commission Employee - Harland Bartholomew (1915)► Garden Suburbs - Forest Hills Gardens, NY (1911)► Historic Preservation - New Orleans LA (1921) Orleans,► Land Use Zoning Ordinance - Los Angeles, CA (1909)► Model Tenement - 1855► National Conference on Planning - Washington D.C. (1909) DC► National Park - Yellowstone (1872)► Planning Board - Hartford, CT (1907)► Planning School - Harvard (1929)► Skyscraper - Chicago, IL (1885)► Statewide Zoning - Hawaii (1961)► U.S. Census - 1790► Zoning Ordinance - New York City, NY (1916)
- 25. Acronyms► ADA - Americans with Disabilities Act ► PERT - P Program E l ti Review Technique Evaluation R i T h i► APFO - Adequate Public Facilities Ordinance ► PPBS - Planning Programming Budgetary System► AMI - Area Median Income ► PUD - Planned Unit Development► BANANA - Build Absolutely Nothing Anywhere ► RCRA - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Near Anything ► RFRA - Religious Freedom Restoration Act R li i F d R t ti A t► CDBG - Community Development Block Grants ► RLUPIA - Religious Land Use and Institutionalized► CERCLA - Comprehensive Environmental Persons Act Response Compensation and Liability Act► CIP - Capital Improvement Program/Plan p p g / ► SARA - Superfund Amendments and► EIS - Environmental Impact Statement Reauthorization Act R th i ti A t► ETJ - Extraterritorial Jurisdiction ► SLAPP - Strategic Lawsuit Against Public► FAR - Floor Area Ratio Participation► GDP - Gross Domestic Product ► SOB - Sexually Oriented Businesses► GIS - Geographical Information Systems ► SWOT - St engths Weaknesses, Opportunity, Strengths, Weaknesses Oppo t nit► GNP - Gross National Product Threats Analysis► HAP - Housing Assistance Plans ► TDR - Transfer of Development Rights► ITE - Institute of Transportation Engineers p g ► TIF - Tax Increment Financing► LULU - Locally Undesirable Land Uses ► TIGER - Topological Integrated Geographic► LUST - Leaking Underground Storage Tank Encoding and Referencing► NAAQS - National Ambient Air Quality ► TOADS - Temporarily Obsolete Abandoned Derelict Standards Sites► NIMBY - Not in My Back Yard k d ► TOD - Transit-Oriented Development Transit-► PDR - Purchase of Development Rights ► UGB - Urban Growth Boundary
- 26. Comprehensive Planning Process► Identify issues► State goals► Collect data► Prepare the plan► Create implementation plans► Evaluate alternatives► Adopt a plan► Implement and monitor the plan
- 27. Visioning Process► Getting started G tti t t d► First community workshop► Establishing taskforces► Second community workshop► Keeping on track► Third community workshop► Drafting the visioning statement► Fourth community workshop/celebration► Marketing and making the vision a reality g g y► Action plan► Annual progress report g► Vision adoption
- 28. Census► 2010 Census National Population 308,745,538 308 38► Know the 2000 Census 2000 Census Population - 281 421 906 281,421,906 1990 Census Population - 248,709,873► Census Geographies g p Census Tracts Census Block Census Block Group C Bl k G Census Designated Place Urbanized Area Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA) Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA)
- 29. Top Planning Books► Town Planning in Practice (Sir) Richard Unwin, 1909► An I A Introduction to City Planning d i Ci Pl i Benjamin M h B j i Marsh, 1909► Wackers Manual of the Plan of Chicago Walter D. Moody, 1912► Carrying Out the City Plan Flavel Shurtleff, Frederick L. Olmsted, 1914► Cities in Evolution Patrick Geddes, 1915► Neighborhood U it N i hb h d Unit Clarence Perry, Cl P 1929► The Disappearing City Frank Lloyd Wright, 1932► Modern Housing Catherine Bauer, 1934► Urban Land Use Planning F. Stuart Chapin, 1957► The I Th Image of the Cit f th City Kevin L K i Lynch, h 1960► The Death and Life of Great American Cities Jane Jacobs, 1961► Silent Spring Rachel Carson, 1962► The Federal Bulldozer Martin Anderson, 1964► The U b G Th Urban General Plan l Pl T.J. K t J T J Kent, Jr., 1964► Design of Cities Edmund Bacon, 1967► Design with Nature Ian McHarg, 1969► Site Planning Kevin Lynch, Gary Hack, 1971► The P ti Th Practice of Local Government Planning fL lG t Pl i Frank So, t l F k S et al., 1979► A Theory of Good City Form Kevin Lynch, 1981► Making Equity Planning Work Norman Krumholz, John Forester, 1990► Rural By Design Randall Arendt, 1994► The G Th Geography of N h h f Nowhere James Howard Kunstler, J H dK tl 1994► Bowling Alone Robert Putnam, 2000
- 30. Top 25 People in Planning p p g (Before 1978)► Hippodamus 5th century B.C.► Benjamin Banneker 1731- 1731-1806► Pierre LEnfant 1754-1852 1754-► Baron Haussmann 1809-1891 1809-► Frederick Law Olmsted 1822-1903 1822-► George Pullman 1831- 1831-1897► Camillo Sitte 1843-1903 1843-► Daniel Burnham 1846-1912 1846-► Jacob August Riis 1849-1914 1849-► Ebenezer Howard 1850- 1850-1928► Patrick Geddes 1854-1932 1854-► Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. 1870-1957 1870-► Clarence Arthur Perry 1872-1944 1872-► Alfred Bettman 1873- 1873-1945► Clarence Stein 1882-1975 1882-► Le Corbusier 1887-1965 1887-► Robert Moses 1888-1981 1888-► Lewis Mumford 1895- 1895-1988► Catherine Bauer 1905-1964 1905-► William Levitt 1907-1994 1907-► Jane Jacobs 1916-2006 1916-► William Whyte 1917- 1917-1999► Kevin Lynch 1918-1984 1918-► Ian McHarg 1920-2001 1920-► Paul Davidoff 1930-1984 1930-
- 31. Top 25 Law Cases► Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon, 260 U.S. 393 (1922)► Village of Euclid v Ambler Realty Co 272 U S 365 (1926) v. Co., U.S.► Berman v. Parker, 348 U.S. 26 (1954)► Cheney v. Village 2 at New Hope, Inc., 241 A.2d 81 (Pa 1968)► Citizens to Preserve Overton Park, Inc. v. Volpe , 401 U.S. 402 (1971)► Calvert Cliffs Coordinating Committee v Atomic Energy Commission 449 F 2d 1109 (D C Cir 1971) Cliffs v. Commission, F.2d (DC. Cir.► Sierra Club v. Morton, 405 U.S. 727 (1972)► Golden v. Planning Board of Ramapo, 285 N.E.2d 291 (NY. 1972)► Just v. Marinette County, 201 N.W.2d 761 (Wis 1972).► Fasano v Board of County Commissioners of Washington County 507 P.2d 23 (Or 1973) v. County, P 2d (Or► Young v American Mini Theaters, Inc., 427 U.S. 50 (1976)► Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp., 429 U.S. 252 (1977)► Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill, 437 U.S. 153 (1978)► Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York 438 U S 104 (1978) Co v York, U.S.► Agins v. City of Tiburon, 447 U.S. 255 (1980)► Metromedia, Inc. v. City of San Diego, 453 U.S. 490 (1981)► Loretto v. Teleprompter Manhattan CATV Corp., 458 U.S. 419 (1982)► Southern Burlington County NAACP v. Township of Mt. Laurel (II) 456 A.2d 390 (NJ. 1983) v Mt (II), A 2d (N J► Williamson County Regional Planning Commission v. Hamilton Bank, 473 U.S. 172 (1985)► First English Evangelical Lutheran Church of Glendale v. Los Angeles County, 482 U.S. 304 (1987)► Nollan v. California Coastal Commission, 483 U.S. 825 (1987)► Lucas v South Carolina Coastal Council 505 U S 1003 (1992) v. Council, U.S.► Dolan v. City of Tigard, 512 U.S. 374 (1994)► Babbitt v. Sweet Home Chapter of Communities for a Great Oregon, 515 U.S. 687 (1995)► Tahoe- Tahoe-Sierra Preservation Council, Inc. v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, 535 U.S. 302 (2002)
- 32. Top 25 Laws After 1978► Urban Parks and Recreation Recovery Act (1978)► Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (1980)► Farmland Protection Policy Act (1981)► New Jersey Fair Housing Act (1985)► Tax Reform Act (1986)► Community Reinvestment Act (1987)► Rhode Island Comprehensive Planning and Land Use Regulation Act (1988)► Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)► Clean Air Act Amendments (1990)► Cranston- Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act (1990)► Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (1991)► Washington Growth Management Act (1991)► Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (1993)► California Community Redevelopment Law Reform Act (1993)► Minnesota Metropolitan Reorganization Act (1994) / Community Based Planning Act (1997)► Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1995)► Pennsylvania Land Recycling Act (1995)► Maryland Smart Growth Act (1997)► Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act (1998)► California Transportation Funding Suballocation / S.B. 45 (1998)► Tennessee P.L. 1101 "Comprehensive Growth Policy Act" (1998)► Georgia Regional Transportation Authority - S B 57 S.B. (1999)► Disaster Mitigation Act (2000)► Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act (2000)► Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act (2001)
- 33. Planning Fathers► Patrick Geddes - Regional Planning► John Muir - Planning, Sierra Club► George McAneny - g y Zoningg► Benton MacKaye - Appalachian Trail► David Lilienthal - Public Power► George Norris Senator - Norris, Tennessee Valley Authority► Edward Bassett - Zoning► Lawrence Veiller - Modern housing codes► George Perkins Marsh - American Environmentalism► Saul Alinsky - Modern community organizing► Clarence Arthur Perry - The Neighborhood Unit Concept► Harland Bartholomew - City Planning► Ian McHarg - The Environmental Movement► Daniel Burnham - City Planning
- 34. Theories► Rational Planning► Incremental Planning► Advocacy Planning► Transactive Planning► Radical Planning► Utopianism► Methodism
- 35. Movements► Conservation Movement► City Beautiful Movement► City Efficient Movement► City Humane Movement y► City Functional Movement► Council of Government Movement► Advocacy Planning Movement► Settlement House Movement► Agrarian Movement► Laissez- Laissez-Faire Movement► Public Health Movement► Garden City Movement► Healthy Cities Movement► Broadacre City Movement► Social Justice Movement► Parks Movement P k M► Progressive Movement
- 36. Measurements►5,280 Linear Feet = 1 Mile►43 560 Square Feet = 1 Acre 43,560►640 Acres = 1 Square Mile q
- 37. Ladder of Public Participation Citizen Control Degrees of Citizen Power Delegated Power Partnership Placation Degrees of Tokenism Consultation Informing Therapy Non- Non-participation Manipulation
- 38. Planning Theories and Models► Theory y of Productive Expenditures - Georges p g Eugene Haussmann► Concentric Ring Theory (1925) - Ernest Burgess► Central Place Theory (1933) - Walter Christaller► Sector Theory, (1939) - Homer Hoyt► Multiple Nuclei Theory (1945) - Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman► Bid Rent Theory (1960) - Willi R t Th William Alonso Al► Urban Realms Model (1960’s) - James E. Vance Jr.►GGrowth M hi Theory (1976) - H th Machine Th Harvey M l t h Molotch► Elite members drive development (1987) - John Logan and Harvey Molotch
- 39. Stuff You Need to Know► Goals and Objectives ► Demographics► SWOT Analysis ► Zoning► Information Systems ► Subdivision► APA Code of Ethics ► GIS► Survey Methods ► Takings► Community Participation ► Location Quotient► Delphi Method ► Dates► Research Methods ► Budgeting and Finance► Population Projections, ► Federal Programs Estimates, and Forecasts ► EVERYTHING
- 42. Contact InformationCraig Sykora, AICP SykoraNorth Central Section Young Planners Group PresidentPhone: (972) 547-2632 ( ) 547-Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgMarc Kurbansade, AICPM K b dTexas Chapter CM CoordinatorPhone: (972) 463-3904 463-Email: email@example.comRichard Luedke, AICP h d dkTexas Chapter PDOPhone: (940) 464-7273 464-Email: firstname.lastname@example.org