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Doordarshan - Indian public service broadcaster Essay Sample

a division of Prasar Bharati. It is one of the largest broadcasting organisations in India in terms of the studio and transmitter infrastructure.
Recently, it has also started broadcasting on Digital Terrestrial Transmitters.
Television is an astonishing discovery of Science. Marconi invented the radio in 1901, by using which we can listen to the broadcasts across continents. Television is an advanced version of radio, which enables us to see images along with audio. Baird introduced the concept of television in 1926. In India, the first Doordarshan kendra was established in 1959 in Delhi. Doordarshan is now a popular medium of entertainment.

On 15 September 2009, Doordarshan celebrated its 50th anniversary. The DD provides television, radio, online and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional India, as well as overseas through the Indian Network and Radio India.
Local programmes are very important from local people's participation point of view. Local talent gets chance for exposure through television. These programmes are produced in regional language and local dialect.

For the London Olympics, live telecasts of the opening and closing ceremonies of the games were broadcast on its national channel. DD sports channel has provided round the clock coverage of sport events.
There are many advantages of Television. Audiences are directly influenced by the programs which are broadcast on television. Plays, Serials, music, art related programs help to develop the cultural values. Telecast of matches helps to increase the level of interest in sports. Religious programmes help to promote social & religious causes.

Beginning

Doordarshan had a modest beginning with an experimental telecast starting in Delhi on 15 September 1959, with a small transmitter and a makeshift studio. The regular daily transmission started in 1965 as a part of All India Radio.

From professional translators, enterprises, web pages and freely available translation repositories.

Doordarshan began a five-minute news bulletin in the same year in 1965. Pratima Puri was the first newsreader. Salma Sultan joined Doordarshan in 1967 and later became a news anchor. The television service was extended to Bombay (now Mumbai) andAmritsar in 1972.
To sum up, television has its merits as well as demerits. Watching the television in a responsible manner is necessary so as to avoid its perils.

Up until 1975, only seven Indian cities had a television service and Doordarshan remained the sole provider of television in India. Television services were separated from radio on 1 April 1976. Each office of All India Radio and Doordarshan were placed under the management of two separate Director Generals in New Delhi.
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Finally, in 1982, Doordarshan as a National Broadcaster came into existence. Krishi Darshan was the first program telecast on Doordarshan. It commenced on 26 January 1967 and is one of the longest running programs on Indian television.
These programmes are produced in regional language in each state capital, which is linked with all the relay transmitters in that particular state. This offers opportunity to project the state's culture, issues, problems etc. on television, which may not be possible through national programmes.

Nationwide transmission

National telecasts were introduced in 1982. In the same year, colour TV was introduced in the Indian market with the live telecast of the Independence Day speech by then prime minister Indira Gandhi on 15 August 1982, followed by the 1982Asian Games which were held in Delhi.

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Now more than 90 percent of the Indian population can receive Doordarshan (DD National) programmes through a network of nearly 1,400 terrestrial transmitters. There are about
46 Doordarshan studios producing TV programmes today.
There are 12 regional Kendras in addition to the regional programmes produced by the metro channels and one composite zone centre for North East. Thus, regional programmes are telecast from 16 states for about four hours a day. Regional programmes help people to identify themselves with them.

Channels

Doordarshan operates 21 channels - two All India channels - DD National and DD News, 11 Regional language Satellite Channels (RLSC), four State Networks (SN), an International channel, a Sports Channel DD Sports and two channels Rajya Sabha TV & Lok Sabha TV for live broadcast of parliamentary proceedings.

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On DD National aka (DD-1), Regional programs and Local Programs are carried on time-sharing basis. DD News channel, launched on 3 November 2003, which replaced the DD Metro formally known as (DD-2) Entertainment channel, provides 24-Hour news service.
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The Regional Languages Satellite channels have two components - The Regional service for the particular state relayed by all terrestrial transmitters in the state and additional programs in the Regional Language in prime time and non-prime time available only through cable operators.

These programmes originate from Delhi and are relayed by all Kendras and transmitters. These programmes are in Hindi and English. This is considered a weak point by many media and development experts.

DD-Sports Channel is exclusively devoted to the broadcasting of sporting events of national and international importance. This is the only Sports Channels which telecasts rural sports like Kho-Kho, Kabbadi etc.
It includes news bulletins, serials, TV documentaries, classical dance and music programmes, quiz shows, panel discussions, telecast of major events and so on. These programmes have national character.

something which private broadcasters will not attempt to telecast as it will not attract any revenues. Active Doordarshan

It is an Interactive Service of Tata Sky to show TV Channels of Doordarshan which are not available on Tata sky as normal channels. Active Doordarshan channels are DD Kashir, DD Podhigai, DD Punjabi, DD Sahyadri, DD Chandana and DD Girnar. DD has its own DTH service called DD Direct Plus. It is free of charge. International broadcasting

DD India is broadcast internationally via satellite. It is available in 146 countries worldwide; however, information on receiving this channel in other countries is not easily available.

On the other hand, Television has its demerits also. People waste a lot of their time in watching television. This reduces the social bonding and adversely affects the social life as a whole. Students are unable to concentrate on studies because of their favorite programs on television. Excessive television viewing weakens the eye muscles.

In the UK, DD-India was available through the Eurobird Satellite on the Sky system on Channel 833 (the logo is shown as Rayat TV). The timing and programming of DD-India international is different from that of India.
National programme can technically reach over 87 percent of the population through 868 transmitters. The programmes are for about 15 hours each day.

Transmissions via Sky Digital (UK & Ireland) ceased in June 2008 and those via DirecTV in the United States in July 2008. Criticisms

Allegations of bias
Doorsharshan does not have an independent editorial control unlike the BBC.

This contributes to making television popular and effective as a mass medium. Local programmes are telecast for about one hour, within the time allotted for the regional programmes.

Prasar Bharati, its parent body has all board members appointed by theGovernment of India acting through the Information and Broadcasting Ministry. This control is evident in a budget that allows expenditure on “propaganda and public relations”. It has been actively used especially during the Emergency for government propaganda. In 2004, it censored the airing of a controversial documentary on Jayaprakash Narayan, one of the opposition leaders during the Emergency.[8] During Operation Blue Star, only government sources were used for reporting the story. Here Doordarshan was complicit in the production of a video that claimed acts of violence which when investigated by independent journalists were found to be false. Commercial viability

Once private television channels were allowed in 1991, Doordarshan has seen a steep decline in viewership in homes with cable and satellite television, which in 2002 was just at 2.38% for DD National. While it earns significant advertising revenue due to the compulsory feed given to it by the highest bidder to national events including cricket tournaments ]there has been a proposal to give it funds by imposing a license fee to own a television in India like the BBC. However this is unlikely to be imposed keeping in view the financial constraints of the average Indian.

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