In citing film and other media, use the citation form for the format in which you watched the work being cited. For example:
- If you watched the film Casablanca on DVD and wish to cite it, use the citation format for DVD (not the film original).
- If you watched Casablanca in a movie theater, use citation format for film.
- If you are citing a documentary or program that you watched on DVD/videotape, but which was originally broadcast on television, use the citation format for DVD/videotape.
- If you are citing a trailer for a theatrical movie that you watched on the internet, use the citation format for online resources.
Include the following elements in the following order. Include as much information as is available from the media package or other sources.
Some DVD players include a USB video recorder. As well as such, there are also have DVD players with a USB port to be able to play digital media types as well as MP4, MP3, etc.
If you are citing the contribution of a particular performer or the director of a work, you may choose to include the person's name first in the citation (last name, first name)
You may include other data that seem pertinent, such as writer of screenplay or writer of work upon which the film is based, depending on the focus of your research.
DVD, Video or Film Title (italics)
Series Title (no italics or quotation marks)
Director/Filmmaker OR Personal Producer OR Corporate/Institutional Producer. Other individuals responsible for the work (eg., writer) if relevant
Key Actors or other Key Performers.
If the work being cited is the original format (ie. if you've viewed the film in a theater), cite the Studio Name OR Production Company followed by production date OR original release date (If known)
Format (if the version you're citing is video or DVD)
Distributor (i.e. DVD or video distributor)
Distribution Date (separated from the distributor by a comma)
Citizen Kane. Dir. Orson Welles. Perfs. Orson Welles, Joseph Cotten. RKO Radio Pictures, 1941.
Fahrenheit 9/11. Dir. Michael Moore. Lions Gate Films, 2006. Film, citing a contributor first:
Kazan, Elia, dir. On the Waterfront. Perfs. Marlon Brando, Lee J. Cobb, Rod Steiger, Eva Marie Saint.
Just as the CD took the place of cassettes, many people believe the DVD, or digital versatile disc, will soon take the place of VHS tapes. Many of you may not even know what a DVD is, so before I go any further, let me show you what one looks like. (Take out DVD disc) It’s the same size as a CD, but it has two sides. Just like a VHS tape, it plays movies directly on your television. DVD video players were originally released in early 1997, and their first year sales were twice that of CD players, which is strong evidence that the DVD is here to stay. Why is the DVD so popular, and what makes it better than VHS? There are three main reasons: sound quality, picture quality, and special features exclusive to DVD.
Columbia Pictures Corporation, 1954.
Karloff, Boris, perf. Frankenstein. Dir. James Whale. Perfs. Boris Karloff, Colin Clive, Mae Clark. Universal Pictures, 1931.
Gore, Al, perf. An Inconvenient Truth. Dir. Davis Guggenheim. Lawrence Bender Productions, 2006.
Rozsa, Miklos, comp. Spellbound. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock. Perfs. Ingrid Bergman, Gregory Peck. United Artists, 1945.
Breathless (À Bout de Souffle). Dir. Jean-Luc Godard. Perfs. Jean-Paul Belmondo, Jean Seberg, Liliane David.
A DVD player is a device that plays DVD discs produced under both the DVD-Video and DVD-Audio technical standards, two different and incompatible standards. Some DVD players will also play audio CDs. DVD players are connected to a television to watch the DVD content, which could be a movie, a recorded TV show, or other content.
1960. DVD. Criterion Collection, 2007.
Frankenstein. Dir. James Whale. Perfs. Boris Karloff, Colin Clive, Mae Clark. 1931. DVD. Universal Pictures, 2006. America's Least Wanted . Prod. Rebecca Haggerty, Susan Levine, Jamie McClelland, Adele Rice and Jaime Yassin. Videocassette. Paper Tiger TV, 1995. Story of Change. Prod. UNICEF. Filmed and edited by, Byron Blunt. Videocassette. Nairobi, Kenya: UNICEF, 1998. DVD/Videorecording, citing a contributor first: Schrader, Paul, writer. Taxi Driver. Dir. Martin Scorsese. Perfs. Robert De Niro, Jodie Foster. 1976. DVD. Columbia TriStar Home Video, 1999.
Video is another issue which continues to present most problems. Current players typically output analog video only, both composite video on an RCA jack as well as S-Video in the standard connector. However, neither of these connectors was intended to be used for progressive video, so yet another set of connectors has started to appear, to carry a form of component video, which keeps the three components of the video, one luminance signal and two color difference signal, as stored on the DVD itself, on fully separate wires (whereas S-Video uses two wires, uniting and degrading the two color signals, and composite uses only one, uniting and degrading all three signals). The connectors are further confused by using a number of different physical connectors on different player models, RCA or BNC, as well as using VGA cables in a non-standard way (VGA is normally analog RGB—a different, incompatible form of component video). Even worse, there are often two sets of component outputs, one carrying interlaced video, and the other progressive, or an interlaced/progressive switch (either a physical switch or a menu setting).
Brooks, Albert, perf. Taxi Driver. Dir. Martin Scorsese. Perfs. Robert De Niro, Jodie Foster. 1976. DVD. Columbia TriStar Home Video, 1999. Wexler, Haskell, cinematographer. Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? . Dir. Mike Nichols. Perfs. Elizabeth Taylor, Richard Burton, George Segal, Sandy Dennis. 1966. DVD. Warner Home Video, 2006.
Faulkner, William, screenplay. To Have and Have Not. Based on the novel by Ernest Hemingway.
Players slowly trickled into other regions around the world. Prices for the first players in 1997 were $1000 and up. By the end of 2000, players were available for under $100 at discount retailers. In 2003 players became available for under $50. Six years after the initial launch, close to one thousand models of DVD players were available from over a hundred consumer electronics manufacturers.
Dir. Howard Hawks. Perfs. Humphrey Bogart, Walter Brennan, Lauren Bacall. 1945. DVD. Warner Home Video, 2003. Hemingway, Ernest. To Have and Have Not. Screenplay by William Faulkner. Dir. Howard Hawks. Perfs. Humphrey Bogart, Walter Brennan, Lauren Bacall. 1945. DVD. Warner Home Video, 2003. DVD/Videorecording, citing additional information about the work or the particular release.
Metropolis. Dir. Fritz Lang. Perfs. Gustav Fröhlich, Brigitte Helm, Alfred Abel. 1926. DVD. Restored authorized edition; digitally remastered.
Formatting and Style Conventions for Essays and Dissertations . References to web articles: You must write a short reference for online sources. Culture, 22 March 1981, extracts included on La Femme de l'aviateur DVD, Arrow Films. Writing About Film - Santa Reparata International School of Art Academic writing about film requires that you see beyond your enjoyment of The film essay engages with ideas about a film, not just our likes and dislikes, which is what ..
Kino International Corporation, 2002. Man with a Movie Camera (Chelovek s kinoapparatom). Dir. Dziga Vertov. Original music composed and performed by the Alloy Orchestra. 1929. DVD. Kino International Corporation, 1997. Mindwalk. Based on the book "The Turning Point" by Fritjof Capra. Dir. Bernt Amadeus Capra. Perfs. Liv Ullman, Sam Waterston, John Heard, Ione Skye. DVD Paramount Pictures, 2000. DVD/Videorecording, citing supplementary material contained on disc: "Making of the Mutuals" (supplmentary visual essay by Sam Gill). The Chaplin Mutuals. Volume 3. DVD. Image Entertainment, 1995. "The Early Sound Era" (supplementary material on DVD release of The Jazz Singer). 2006 . DVD. Warner Home Video, 2007. DVD/Videorecording of a work originally broadcast on television
Summer of Love. American Experience. Prod. and dir., Gail Dolgin & Vicente Franco. PBS. WGBH in association with KQED. DVD PBS Home Video, 2007.
Medicine at the Crossroads. Prod. 13/WNET and BBC TV. DVD. PBS Home Video, 1993.
"Bringing up Buster." Arrested Development (Season 1). Perfs. Alia Shawkat, David Cross, Jason Bateman, Jeffrey Tambor. DVD. Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2006.
Due to multiple audio (and video) output devices, there are many outputs on a DVD player, such as an RCA jack, component outputs, and an HDMI output. Consumers may become confused with how to connect a player to a TV or amplifier. Most systems include an optional digital audio connector for this task, which is then paired with a similar input on the amplifier. The physical connection is typically RCA connectors or TOSLINK, which transmits a S/PDIF stream carrying either uncompressed digital audio (PCM) or the original compressed audio data (Dolby Digital, DTS, MPEG audio) to be decoded by the audio equipment.
"Ku Klux Klan: The Invisible Empire." CBS Reports. Prod. and dir. David Lowe. Correspondent: Charles Kuralt. 1982. DVD. Films for the Humanities & Sciences, 2002.
Capote, Truman. "A Christmas Memory." Hallmark Hall of Fame. Dir. Glenn Jordan. Perf. Patty Duke, Piper Laurie, Jeffrey DeMunn. 1997. DVD. Lions Gate, 2000. DVD/Videorecording of a series originally broadcast on television. Citing installment in series:
Title of the episode in quotation marks. Name of the series or program in italics. Director, producer, other significant individuals involved Publication medium (eg. DVD). Distributor, followed by date of the DVD (NOT the original broadcast)
"The House We Live In." Race, The Power of an Illusion. Prod., Christine Herbes-Sommers; series prod., Larry Adelman. DVD. California Newsreel, 2003. Scorsese, Martin, Exec. Prod. "Feel like going home." Martin Scorsese Presents The Blues. DVD. Seattle, WA: Vulcan Productions, Inc.; Berlin: Road Movies Filmproduktion Gmbh, 2003.
"When Things Get Tough." The War. Dir. Ken Burns. Prod. Florentine Films and WETA Washington D.C. DVD. PBS Home Video; Paramount Home Entertainment, 2007.
"Ain't Scared of your Jails, 1960-1961." Eyes on the Prize: America's Civil Rights Years, 3. Prod. WGBH Boston; Blackhawk Films, 1986. DVD. PBS Video, 2006.
"Official War Film W.F. 13." World War II Films. Prod. US Office of War Information. 1943. DVD. Earthstation1.com, 2007.
Cage, John. "Chess Serenade: For Piano." The Works for Piano. John Cage. Vol. 7. DVD. Mode Productions, 2006 Calloway, Cab. "Hi-de-ho." Best of Jazz and Blues. 1933. DVD. Kino on Video, c2001. The Chemical Brothers. The Work of Director Michel Gondry. DVD. Palm Pictures, 2003. "Lindy Hop (1937)." Perf, Mama Lu Parks' Jazz Dancers. Dance Black America. Videocassette. Dance Horizons Video, 1990.
- or, if emphasizing issuing agency:
- US Office of War Information. "Official War Film W.F. 13." World War II Films. 1943. DVD. Earthstation1.com, 2007.
or, if emphasizing the performers: Mama Lu Parks' Jazz Dancers. "Lindy Hop (1937)." Dance Black America. Videocassette. Dance Horizons Video, 1990. Include the following elements in the following order. Title of episode or segment (if appropriate In quotes) Title of program (italics) Title of series (if appropriate. No quotes or underline) Producer, Director, Performers, Writer (if known. Inclusion and order depends on emphasis) Network Local Affiliate and the city Date of Broadcast
Woody Allen: A Documentary. American Masters. Dir. and prod., Robert Weide. PBS. WNET, Channel 13. 10 Feb. 2012. Racism 101. Prod. Thomas Lennon. PBS. KQED, San Francisco. 5 Oct. 1988.
White House Prayer Breakfast. Al Gore (Introduction), Bill Clinton (Address), Rev.
According to an article by Steve Traiman in the September 5th, 1998 issue of Billboard, there are already nearly 800,000 DVD players in North American households, and more than ten times that amount in is expected in the next four years. And why not? In addition to the features I’ve listed above, players can be purchased for around $300, there are over 1500 movie titles available, and most of them cost between ten and thirty dollars. One web site is even selling a DVD version of President Clinton’s grand jury testimony for just two cents. The DVD is to the VCR as the CD is to the cassette player. It may not be today or tomorrow, but eventually the DVD will become the primary movie format and find a place in your living room.
Gerald Mann (Closing prayer), Rabbi Alan Cohen (Interview)." C-SPAN, Washington, D.C. 11 Sept. 1998.
"Torture." Narr. Scott Pelley. Sixty Minutes. CBS. WCBS, New York. 30 March 2008. "War Against Iraq Begins." Narr. Peter Jennings, Ted Koppel. Nightline. ABC. KGO, San Francisco, 16 Jan. 1991. "Car Crash on I-80." Ten O'clock News. KNBC, Los Angeles. 16 Jan. 1991. "The Arsenal of Democracy." The Great Depression; 7. Prod. Blackside, Inc.; Exec Prod Henry Hampton. WGBH, Boston. 1 Mar. 1993. Afghanistan: the Great Game. NPR, Washington, D.C. 8 Feb. 1980. "Mumia Abu Jamal: 15th Anniversary of His Arrest." Democracy Now. Pacifica. KPFA-FM, Berkeley, CA. 9 Dec. 1996. "Trash of the Titans." The Simpsons, Season 9. Dir. Jim Reardon, Mark Kirkland, et al. Voices: Dan Castellaneta, Julie Kavner, Nancy Cartwright, Yeardley Smith, Hank Azaria, Harry Shearer. CBS. KPIX, San Francisco. 10 September 2006. "Emerging Tigers." Narr. Ress Jones. Prod. John Hawke. Asian Business Report. PBS. WEFT, New York. 15 August 1990.
For advertisements and other broadcasts without a fixed programming schedule, you may chose to include the time of the broadcast: Levi Strauss Co. Levi Dockers Advertisement. Aired 10:35pm. CBS. KPIX, San Francisco. 5 August 1999.