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Organizations Approach Towards Diversity Management - Free Management Essay - Essay UK

Pakistan is multi-cultural country and inhibits people of different ethnicity, race, culture, language, socio-economic background, and religion. Therefore the workforce available is much diversified in nature.
In addition, every organization consists of multi-generational workforce which is varying and is seen more likely to create conflict. However, with good management, organizations can use this assortment of employees as a basis of competitive advantage. Hence, there is no doubt that why the organizations in present day are built upon workforce diversity which is a main point of causing many significant issues within the organizations, such as communication, language, culture of living, and way of working. Executives always neglect these basic issues, so they never provided any solutions to make compatible among employees. For example, according to a problem statement in diversity research, it mentioned about the conflict caused by improper management on workforce diversity which can create difficulties and destructive interpersonal conflicts. This will have an impact on an overall aspect of organizations. Moreover, if managers do not attend diversity management, employees will keep breaking the rules by their behavior. This can violate the organizational sustainability in long-term [3] .

With the increasing opportunities and trends for female education, more women are opting for work in organizations. In this perspective, diversity management becomes very important for organizations to better utilize the diverse workforce to increase organizational performance.
The components of success and achievement of organizations rely on work teams which are compared as a main machine driving organizations to reach a determined goal. Every work team will consist of diverse workforces who have various backgrounds. This diversity of people can be classified into two dimensions: the primary and the secondary. The primary is all about differences among people that are clearly visible. The secondary is differences among people that are invisible. However, the main differences on which these two dimensions place emphasis are Age Differences (the primary) and Cultural Differences (the secondary). Age differences and cultural differences are considered a challenge for organizations in terms of human resource management so that diverse workforce will be managed more effectively and employees will be able to work together in organization with a healthy work environment. Therefore, good administrators should pay attention to diversity education in organizations in order to learn, understand, and acknowledge individual behavior; it is also a good opportunity for employees to get a better understanding of each other. Knowing how to manage diverse workforce can assist administrators to realize weak points and strong points of each employee. Then administrators will be able to utilize that realization for developing human resource management approach and managing collaboration between diverse workforces based on rules of organizations.


In this case study, we have reviewed literature to find diversity management issues and studied the management approach of different organizations, from medium to large scale, towards difference concepts of diversity management like equal employment opportunity, age diversity, gender diversity, language and culture diversity, etc.
There are many HRM perspectives that relate to diversity management in organisations. Most of these HRM perspectives lead towards the contention that a successful diversity management policy can lead to a more competitive, functional organisation. In light of the perspectives and rationales discussed in the HRM literature, there a range of implications for HR managers concerning diversity in the workplace. Management of diversity relates to equal employment opportunity, but effective diversity management goes beyond the basic requirements of an equal opportunity workplace (Barrile & Cameron, 2004). It is important for HR to determine an effective diversity management policy to be able to encourage a more diverse workplace. The most important job for senior HR managers is to consider how diversity will benefit the organisation and how to define its role in the context of the organisation (Kreitz, 2008). An organisation's diversity policy should aim to establish an heterogeneous workforce that is able to work to its full capacity in an environment where no member, or for that matter group of members, have an advantage or disadvantage based on their individual differences (Torres & Bruxelles, 1992, as cited in D'Netto & Sohal, 1999).

, and what best practices are followed to handle with these issues. We have conducted a survey in Pakistani industry using a survey questionnaire to collect data related to diversity management and performed a quantitative analysis of data to find the trends and patterns of industry towards diversity management.
Diversity management in the workplace has been one of many organisational issues due to factors such as globalisation and the emerging age, cultural and individual differences that emerge as a result of this new challenging world. The purpose of this essay is to explore the topic of diversity as it relates to the workplace by discussing perspectives from human resource management (HRM) perspectives and to investigate the barriers to workplace diversity. Through the discussion, the advantages of diversity will be discussed with an importance on the implications for the HR function of the organization. There is an intense need to identify the external and internal factors that influence the HRM functions and practices. The essay also identifies how successful companies like Telstra, ANZ bank and many others have managed the impact of various internal and external factors to become one of the leaders in their industry. Human resource management has achieved significant importance in recent years both in terms of theory and practice in corporations today that cannot be ignore as the importance of managing human capital in order to achieve their goals and objectives.


Introduction
The definition of diversity has evolved from a focus on legal issues like race, gender, age to a much broader definition that include all kind of human differences. Different authors have defined diversity in different context.
Tesco is a large organization and they are working all across the globe so it is quite obvious for them that they sent their employees at different locations for the learning purpose and they employee integration is also very common in the organizational working environment of Tesco. But this kind of integration and knowledge management arrangement, it's become tough to handle the level of discrimination which take place at the lower level and sometime middle level managers also show their familiarity with the sick attitude (Busch, 1989). Tesco has to foster such kind of management practices that will allow them to create the pleasant working environment and diversity could be managed properly. Tesco can work in two ways, either they can implement the legal policies or they can rely upon the formulation of strategies. In both the cases the concept of inequality regimes given by Joan Acker could be helpful for cited organization.

In general, diversity refers to dissimilarities among people due to age, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, socio-economical background and capabilities (Jones and George, p 115). Or diversity is the variation among social and cultural identities among people existing in a defined employment or marketing setting (Cox and Blake 1991).
According to them it is a very common scenario within the companies that on the gender or racism basis the decision making related to the distribution of work comes into existence. It is one of the major reasons that weaken down the strategy related to the strategy implementation process of diversity management. The Acker has suggested that it is a responsibility of the company that the competency identification must play an important role while assigning any duty to any individual. It can help on the ground of generating better results or outcomes and most importantly the employee satisfaction can also take place. On the gender basis, it has been that men have more power than women employees and they were not allowed to contribute in the decision making process (Cook, 1998). Organizations are supposed to come out of such kind of attitude and there is requirement of providing equal opportunities to the people working within the organization. In his study of inequality regimes the author has mentioned various kinds of management practices that indicate towards the inequality within the organization. So the companies can learn from such kind of instances and try to avoid such kinds of business practices.


Diversity management approaches are required to handle with important ethical and social responsibility issues that rise due to diverse workforce in organizations. Effectively managing diversity can improve organizational performance while failing to handle diversity issues well can bring an organization to its knees
Diversity Management (DM) in organizations is also important as there is substantial evidence that diverse individuals continue to experience unfair treatment in the workplace as a result of biases, stereotypes and overt discrimination.
Working in diverse work groups sounds more complex than working with people who have the identical attitude, value, and culture. Diverse collaboration, however, can bring many advantages by proper management. The most common benefit, which is an important factor for the businesses, is it creates competitive advantage over rivals because the diverse employees and work groups can enlarge capability of idea creation, foster cooperative diversity, and respond directly to local preferences which are very essential for all global businesses which demand to spread out the total market. Therefore, it is critical that the executives are supposed to have a farsighted perspective about how to manage diversity in the workplace efficiently in order to eliminate the possible issues and reinforce diverse cooperation. Consequently, personnel management within the organizations, which is able to create an integrated collaboration environment more effectively, is becoming the key role increasingly.

When managers effectively manage diversity, they realize that diversity is an important organizational resource that can help an organization gain a competitive advantage.
Since the 1960s, anti-discrimination social movements in the United States have made workplace diversity an important issue within a business context.
What is the diversity? According to Kelli A. Green, Mayra Lopez, Allen Wysocki, and Karl Kepner, they said Diversity is ordinarily explained as understanding and accepting both obvious and unobvious individual differences, such as age, ethnicity, gender, psycho-socio-spiritual, religious belief, and status. It also means recognizing and respecting the value of people [5] . Currently, diversity becomes an important matter in business world. It makes big changes around the world especially in the Unites States as the rate of diverse immigrants is increasing more and more [6] . Since having diverse employees creates a competitive advantage and increase organizations’ productivity, organizations should place more attention on ways to manage diversity effectively in order to adapt and improve business structure so that the organizations will have competency to deal with highly competitive market in the present day [7] .

Some scholars tend to focus on equal and legal perspectives, while others tend to focus on strategic- and business-oriented perspectives. Until the 1990s, DM issues have been dominated by Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) and Affirmative Action (AA) programs.
According to Holly Louise Watson, people can basically work well together when they know, understand, and accept one another enough. Therefore, employers should provide multigenerational employees with educations and opportunities to learn each other such as each generation’s backgrounds, characteristics, interests, and culture [42] . Assigning representatives from each generation is a good idea for creating learning program to instruct employees about generations’ history so that they will have a better understanding and accepting of intergenerational interaction. If employees have no time for programs, create some topics to discuss during the break, make some interesting flyer, or use e-mail to present knowledge [43] . However, a fundamental training is still required for employees: ‘soft skill’. According to Anick Tolbize, he found that leaders or trainers should concern about each generation’s interests when educating soft skill, whereas ‘hard skill’ does not need to be considered separately for each generation since all generations have similar needs for ‘hard skill’. For example, Boomers prefer to learn skills training in their own area of expertise, while Xers and Yers’ preference is leadership training. Since different generations have different training and learning preferences, employers should manage effectively how to match employees to their desired programs so that they will be able to gain full benefits on their interests [44] .

Equal employment opportunity ensures that employment decisions (eg., hiring, promotion, pay) are made without regard to legally protected attributes such as an employee's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. Affirmative action programs, in turn, seek to remedy past discrimination by taking proactive steps based on race or gender and to prevent current or future discrimination.
The degree of receptivity to perceived dissimilarity is referred to as diversity. In an organisation an individual or work group that is open to diversity is unprejudiced and they are willing to take into consideration the arguments and new ideas that is approachable to ideas external their usual way of thinking. Diversity openness is a broad attitude to variation, where the level of openness and the type of apparent difference varies as a function of the person. It refers to embracing difference. Steps are to be taken to decrease likely negative affective and behavioural reactions to difference in order to realise the full potential diversity offers to organisations. Individuals and groups must be able to conquer stereotypes or prejudices and identify that actual different others have exclusive and valuable information that can clutch up group processes and routine. Another name for diversity openness is tolerance of difference.

Scholars began researching the potential benefits of diversity as a business case (Gilbert, Stead, & Ivanchevich, 1999; Thomas & Ely, 1996; Surgevil, 2010) with contribution of studies which focuses on DM impacts on organizational performance.
The list of benefits includes the improvement in productivity as well. If all the above mentioned aspects have proper alignment with each other then it automatically contributes into the better performance of employees. All the employees work at same platform and focus on fostering the innovation and creativity rather than focusing upon the unethical business practices. At last the communication is something that can’t be neglected from the list of benefits of proper policy or strategy implementation process in the management of diversity. Without communication none of the organization can convey the message about their ethical values among the employees (Auch and Smyth, 2010). The communication is something that helps in making people familiar with the values of higher authorities and floating them at various hierarchical levels. High level of interaction always required when the company works at a global or international level. Therefore, these are major benefits that could be faced by Tesco in the long run and they can get the leading edge on their competitors as well.


Literature Review
Diversity
Diversity is a natural phenomenon in groups and cannot be avoided without taking proper measures in this respect. All humans tend to be ethnocentric such that in intergroup relations people tend to categorize based on any attributes that are available (Triandis, Kurowski and Gelfanc 1994, p 790).
The current legislation related to workplace diversity essentially creates an environment in which employers cannot recruit purely on the basis of a desired attribute. The main acts concerned are the Racial Discrimination Act (1975), the Sex Discrimination Act (1984), the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act (1984), the Occupational Health and Safety (Commonwealth Employment) Act (1991), the Disability Discrimination Act (1991) and the Workplace Relations Act (1996) (Williams, 2001.) These laws essentially shape a scenario for employees where if a desired attribute is sought after, the job must be made appealing to that particular group of people without impairing the opportunity for any other group to obtain the position under the requirements of the legislation.

Mostly these categorizations are based on physical and social attributes. Attributes that are readily detectable, such as race, age, sex may be more likely used for categorization than less salient attributes such as education, experience, or personality characteristics (Katherine and Charles, 1998).
Organizations should establish performance principles and provide flexible work arrangements to each employee: the right job to the right person. With this flexibility, it can allow employee to utilize his or her experience on his or her interests. Tracey L. Cekada provided an example about flexibility that Boomers might prefer to talk to customers face-to-face or giving them a call, while Yers might prefer to use e-mail or other tools to communicate with customers; additionally, Xers and Yers like to work independently more than working as a team as Boomers prefer [32] . Employees should look for productive ways and be keen to learn others’ needs and interests within organizations in order to meet everyone’s expectation [33] . Furthermore, according to Jennifer S. F., Danielle H., and Kristin M, they pointed that organizations should find some solutions which can meet every generation’s preferences. Adopting telework and telecommuting system, for example, can be appreciated as a great benefit to Boomers, Xers, and Yers since Boomers commonly focus on aging parents at home; meanwhile, want to sustain productivity at the workplace, while Xers can balance their work and family life, and Yers who are likely to be pleased with independent work, they view time is more important than money [34] .

Once evoked diversity results in stereotype, bias and prejudices behavior in group members that leads to poor process and poor performance (Stephan, 1985).
There has been extensive studies carried out by different group of researchers and different theories exist about the effects of diversity on group performance.
This paper is designed to inform how to manage workforce diversity effectively to increase a strong relationship and operating environment among the employees so that they can extend their potential and optimize their competency, which brings about a productive improvement, to achieve the organizations’ desired goals and that will affect directly toward overall profitability of the organizations.

Some researchers have argued that organizations can benefit and improve performance if diversity is properly managed. This theory is also known as 'value-in-diversity hypothesis' (Cox, Lobel, & McLeod, 1991).
These organisations have made efforts to create a diverse working environment through varying HRM practices. For example, HRM within ANZ created the "My Difference" survey which surveyed more than 13, 500 employees (ANZ, 2010). Within this survey, HR is able to develop a demographic picture of the workforce and gather feedback on how their employees perceive diversity and inclusion within the organisation. ANZ also founded the Diversity Council, which introduces policies and sponsors events to create a more inclusive culture (ANZ, 2010). The council attempts to increase awareness by supporting events like the Australian Open where it is considered one of the world's premier sporting events (ANZ, 2010). It's known as the Grand Slam of the Asia Pacific where the Australian Open has a strong Australian heritage, as well as having widely recognised appeal as a regional event in New Zealand, the Pacific and Asia. ANZ will sponsor the Australian Open for 3 years from 2010 (ANZ, 2010).

While other researchers have shown strong evidence that diversity is harmful to group functioning and results in poor performance (Guzzo & Dickson, 1996). And some other researchers have concluded that diversity can be both beneficial for the group increasing opportunity for creativity as well as harmful with the likelihood that group members will be dissatisfied and fail to identify with the group (Milliken & Martins, 1996).
According to Jeanne Brett, Kristin Behfar, and Mary C. Kern, a structural intervention is a thoughtful organization restructuring which is willing to decrease or eliminate interpersonal conflicts that arise from cultural diversity. This strategy will be more operative when teamwork is separated into subgroups with clear demarcation, or if some team members have negative stereotype thinking of each other or feel defensive [49] . For example, a manager of an investment research team had to manage his team which consists of members from Europe, the U.S., and the UK. The manager let all team members discuss face-to-face about work process at the first meeting; he noticed that no one spoke, just waited for him to start talking and they just listened. Therefore, he tried to change the concept of hierarchy. He hired a consultant to be his representative; the result turned out great as the consultant did not act in a hierarchical way and was able to gain the team members’ participation [50] . Structural intervention is also utilized to create small workgroups which consists of different cultures; this allows employees or team members to know and respect one another. Many organizations do not only use this strategy to reduce cultural differences between employees, but also buffer employees who cannot collaborate well together or participate in a large group of people [51] .


Theoretical Frameworks
Researchers have used multiple theories to explain the effects of diversity management on organizations' working and performance. Following section discusses the most common theoretical bases for investigating diversity issues.
Managerial Intervention is another strategy that organizations are adopting to ensure that they efficiently manage cultural diversity. Many organizations have used the managerial intervention strategy in diverse cases. This strategy has an important role in resolving cultural diversity conflicts within organizations. Manager will become involve in conflicts in order to create the ground rules and make a final decision to judge existing conflicts and what way they should be solved without employees involvement. However, this strategy is commonly used in situations that cannot be solved [52] . Employees or team members should set norms in the early stage through managerial intervention as it can assist them to solve problems effectively. With managerial intervention, managers can help employees to inspire one another to make sure that everyone is motivated and valued to collaborate with each other regardless of different cultures. Nevertheless, manager should be concerned in intervening because managerial interventions can be applied for both good and bad cause. According to Cambridge Journal of Economics, managerial intervention will dominate existing ways of working that employees have always conducted. Furthermore, some employees may be delegated to have decision-making authority within their division or team; employees may not be satisfied if the option of managerial intervention blocks or overrides their decision rights [53] .

These theories or their variants are used in a number of demography studies and are important basis to interpret diversity related empirical evidence.
Social Categorization
Social categorization and social identification theories is based on assumption that individuals have a desire to maintain a level of self-esteem.
According to Anick Tolbize, as each generation has different perspectives and values things differently, employers should encourage employees to ask reasonable questions rather than being judgmental based upon suppositions when they are uncertain of others’ behavior. Moreover, employers should make employees to see respect as the norm because most people always view respect as what they have been taught and they expect others to do the same as them which is impossible [29] . David Stanley mentioned an example in Journal of Nursing Management, he said Boomers expect to get respected, whereas Generation X generally wants to be treated equally regardless of position level [30] . Building up multigenerational conversation can also avoid being judgmental of one another and promote employee engagement at the same time. The age gap issue will be lessened when employees keep communication open since they understand and get familiar with each other more. According to Susan A. Murphy and Claire Raines, knowing what diverse people’s preferences or requirements by asking is sometimes easier and more fun than just keep it with your assumption, also asking is the only way to ensure their needs [31] .

This is done through social comparison with others. In making these comparisons, the individuals first define themselves by a self-categorization process in which they categorize themselves and others in social categories using features such as age, gender, race, status, or religion.
A definition of diversity is simply referred to as variety distinctness between people or things. As diversity can be both visible and invisible, the diversity in this case is not only age, gender, nationality, ethnicity, color, culture, status, belief, ideologies and religion, but also individual differences, such as learning skills, information awareness, obedience, personal preferences, life style etc [4] . When it comes to collaboration, this represents that diversity meaningfully involves the way people interact to one another, and affect the work environment. Thus, producing alliance between similarities and differences require mutual appreciating, respecting, and understanding interdependency to each other so that the environment in the workplace will be healthy which is able to make people work together productively in a positive way.

This process permits a person to define him- or herself in terms of a social identity (Tajfer & Turner, 1986) as an individual or member of one group compared to other groups.
Similarity/Attraction
This theory is based on the fact that demographic composition of groups could result in variation in communication, cohesion and integration.
Why should companies concern themselves with diversity? Many managers answered this question with the assertion that discrimination is wrong, both legally and morally. But today managers are voicing a second notion as well. A more diverse workforce, they say, will increase organizational effectiveness. It will lift morale, bring greater access to new segments of the marketplace, and enhance productivity. In short, they claim, diversity will be good for business. Research stated that the Canadian companies leading the way in the area of diversity management have discovered that by embracing the elements of ethnic and cultural diversity in their workforce they have enhanced their ability to understand and tap new markets, both within Canada and abroad. Research generated from a variety of fields predicts that important benefits will accrue from demographic heterogeneity in organizations by increasing the variance in perspectives and approaches to work that members of different identity groups can bring (e.g., Thomas and Ely, 1996).

Research has shown that similarity on attributes ranging from attitudes and values to demographic variable increases interpersonal attraction and liking. Individuals with similar background may share common life experiences and values, and may find the experience of interaction with each other easier, positively reinforcing and more desirable.
Fromm the research, several implications and recommendations for organisation and diversity were selected by the researcher. Firstly Organisations are expected to encourage and to have a continuous monitoring on the ability of their cultural and climate to make possible positive stereotypes towards difference. Secondly in the case of selection capacity of recruit should be given consideration in order to provide services which are positive to the persons from different backgrounds. Thirdly the service of employees should be compared by the performance monitoring, their feedback and evaluation in the organisation to similar and dissimilar internal and external customer.

There is a strong tendency among people to interact with people of similar characteristics
Information/Decision Making
These theories propose that diversity in group composition can have a direct positive impact due to increase in the skills, abilities, information, and knowledge that diversity brings (Tziner, & Eden, 1985).
An invisible diversity that derives from external factors and has an apparent impact on human thinking process and human conduct comes from culture and religion. Cultural and religious differences create social norms, for example, as we always see that it has great influence in shaping Middle Eastern people’s mindset. Some people bring up cultural and religion differences to determine the set of regulations of people’s living and working. Changing people’s behavior that is inconsistent with their beliefs is hard, and it also can affect organizations’ creditability. Therefore, it is crucial for executives to pay attention on cultural and religious management in order to avoid any possible cross-cultural conflicts. Also, organizations will be able to promote employee engagement to have more effective collaboration.

Demographically diverse individuals are expected to have a broader range of knowledge, skills and expertise compared to homogenous individuals. Diversity promotes creativity in the workforce and adds new information.
The action attempts to monitor and control diversity in an organisation and in doing so, senior management can affect the hiring and promotion of individuals (Sadri & Tran, 2002). An organisation assumes new individuals or groups will adapt to the standard of the organisation, and will not resist due to fears of reverse discrimination (Sadri & Tran, 2002). Valuing diversity can allow an organisation to focus the benefits of the differences, therefore developing an environment where all individuals are valued and accepted (Sadri & Tran, 2002). Those members who feel valued to their organisation tend to be harder working, more involved and innovative (Agahazadeh, 2004). Valuing Diversity can affect employees' attitudes positively, however resistance can be experienced due to a fear of change and individuals discomfort with differences (Sadri & Tran, 2002.) Finally, managing diversity is when organisations build specific skills and create policies which obtain the best values of each employee, which will create new ways of working together (Sadri & Tran, 2002). It will provide an opportunity for organisations to manage a workforce which highlight both organisational and individual performance, whilst still acknowledging individual needs (Kramar, 1998).

The positive impact of diversity becomes very important and valuable when the task benefits from multiple perspectives and diverse knowledge like product design, innovation, etc.
Effects of Demographic Diversity
Diversity has many aspects and research has shown that not every aspect of diversity is expected to have the same effects on the group performance.
Brislin, R., 2008. Working with Cultural Differences: Dealing Effectively with Diversity in the Workplace. Greenwood Publishing Group.

In this respect, mostly organizations face demographic diversity issues due to diverse workforce with respect to age, sex, race and ethnicity. In the following section, we discuss each of these issues and its effect on the organization performance.
Workplace diversity relates to the presence of differences among members of the workforce (D'Netto & Sohal, 1999). By creating diverse workforce organizations, they are able to make the ideas, creativity, and potential contributions inherent in a diverse workforce (Aghazadeh, 2004). Diversity in the workplace includes culture, gender, nationality, sexual orientation, physical abilities, social class, age, socio-economic status, and religion (Sadri & Tran, 2002). These individual characteristics shape an individual's perception about their environment and how they communicate (Kramar, 1998).


Age Diversity
Age is a visible demographic characteristic and may affect the group performance with respect to social categorization. Group members with same age group increase the likelihood that they have developed similar outlooks towards life, interpersonal attraction, shared values and shared experience.
Based on my paper, if I have my own organization, the strategies that I want to take to help my organization to become successful will be both ‘Five principles’ of multigenerational and ‘Four Strategies’ of multicultural management. For well-managed organizations, I think both of them should absolutely not be neglected. I view managing multigenerational workforce is a basis of management in good organizations since employees in each generation have unique preferences, experiences, values, and expectations that affect their behaviors and attitudes. Accordingly, I need to know and understand the needs of each generation so that I will be able to manage my employees effectively by adjusting productive strategies to administrate them and respond to their expectations positively. Therefore, ‘Five principles’ of multigenerational management will be required for my organization’s success. In the sense of managing multicultural workforce, I see it as a necessary component for my organization’s growth, particularly for global business in the future. With effective management of intercultural workforce, I believe this can make employees extremely utilize their potentials which will support directly toward the increase in productivity and overall benefits of my organization.

This results in more homogeneity among the group members and should improve group process. On the other hand, age diversity might result in communication issues, and social integration. However, age diversity may have positive effect on creativity and performance of group.
Better organizational culture: the major benefit that could be availed by cited organization is that they can definitely provide the better organizational culture to its employees. The harmonious relationship among the employees and employer could be created if the organizational culture is good. It is to acknowledge that the major benefit is related to the creation of group behavior or team culture with the organization. Through team culture the Tesco can accomplish their objective and competitive advantage could be gained very easy. Thus, it is most significant benefit of managing the diversity (Acker, J. 2006).


Gender Diversity
Social categorization and similarity/attraction theory suggests that gender diversity can have very negative effects on the group performance and working. The presence of individuals with different gender may result in cognitive biasing.
In present day, human diversity becomes a more and more important part in human resource management. Organizations should pay more attention to the study of diversity so that executives will be able to manage and determine new effective strategies to adapt to change in the workplace; also be prepared for leading organizations to achieve its desired goals for the future. Managing diversity suitably can create a healthy work environment in the workplace and also encourage employees to be loyal toward organizations. This article focuses on the most apparent differences between people in organizations, which are age differences and cultural differences. Knowing how to manage the differences in each generation and culture, which influence behavior and attitude of each individual will be able to make employees feel satisfied; this also increases employees’ morale which can make employees work more effectively. In summary, the age and cultural differences are a main factor for determining people’s behavior and perception. Therefore, examining human diversity and knowing the impact of each difference are necessary since it can give an opportunity for organizations to improve its strategies and workplace productivity.

However, the relationship between gender diversity and group process is based on the proportion of each gender in the group (Kanter 1977). In general, research in gender diversity suggests that it has negative effects on groups especially on males.
According to Jeffrey Kearns, Earl Larson, and Jagadeesh Venugopal, the main factor to create effective workforce diversity is to understand the features of the three generations so that executives can effectively manage multigenerational collaboration. As executives realize how different between each generation is, executives should also be attentive to employee knowledge improvement and necessary skills development in order to substitute next generations for previous generations as organizations are continuously moving on to the next era. Knowing how to manage multigenerational workforce efficiently will be able to create competitive advantage since it is a source of employee productivity development [28] .


Racial and Ethnic Diversity
Research with respect to racial and ethnic diversity suggests that it has an overall negative impact on the group performance. For example, all participants exhibited lower level of group commitment when work groups mostly composed of minorities.
Although diversity has always existed in organisations, individuals tend to limit their diversity in order to conform to the rule of the organisation and fit into the stereotype of the typical employee (Kramar, 1998). Mismanagement of diversity as a result of unfavorable treatment can inhibit employees working abilities and motivation, which can lead to a lowered job performance (Aghazadeh, 2004). If an environment works well for employees, diversity will work against the organisation, hence the lack of an enabling environment (Kramar, 1998). These fundamental components of workplace diversity can be further viewed through the varying perspectives of union groups, HRM professionals and organisations. Management aims to maximise the contribution of all staff to work towards organisational objectives through forming guiding teams for diversity, training to improve languages and celebrating success. Unions however, implement diversity differently (Barrile & Cameron, 2004).

Information and decision making theories suggest that racial and ethnic diversity may have positive effects on group. Similarity/attraction and social categorization theories predict that racial and ethnic diversity will result in decreasing interpersonal attraction and cognitive biasing, leading to less open communication and more conflict.
Diversity in the workplace means when people are getting employed without discrimination i.e. on the basis of gender, age, and ethnic, cultural background, sexual orientation, religious belief or the racial background. Diversity also refers to the other ways such as level of education, experience in life, their social economic background, also their personality and status. Work experience and marital status also covers diversity (Hostager & Meuse 2008). Basically workplace diversity means identifying the values of different individuals and managing them in the environment called workplace.


In Figure 1, dimensions of diversity are shown based on Loden's model in which individuals are distinguished in terms of primary and secondary characteristics.

Figure 1
Source: Loden, M., Implementing Diversity, 1996

Diversity Management
Diversity management is planning and implementing organizational systems and practices to manage people so that the potential advantages of diversity are maximized and disadvantages are minimized (Cox, 1993).

HR in ANZ has implemented a range of human resource strategies. Disability awareness, plans in the companies outline strategies to increase support and inclusion for customers and staff of the organisation, which include premises being wheelchair accessible (ANZ, 2010). Besides that, in order to promote age balance, mature age employees are offered flexible working conditions to suit their changing lifestyle (ANZ, 2010). Culturally the banks have planned to help indigenous Australians improve their wellbeing and money management skills. ANZ celebrates cultural diversity by holding "Annual Cultural Week" (ANZ, 2010).

According to this definition, diversity management purpose is to utilize diversity as a competitive edge by minimizing the negative effects of diversity through proper planning. In another definition, diversity management is considered a pragmatic approach in which participants anticipate and plan for change and do not perceive diversity as a threat rather view workplace as a forum for individuals' growth, skills and performance with direct cost benefits to the organization (Arredondo, 1996).
Employee motivation: It is well said that employee motivation can be improved if an organization is provided them secure working environment. It is acknowledged that through removing the inequality the level of job security could be increased at very large scale (Wadham et al. 2012). Through providing the equal growth opportunities the level of fear among the employees could be minimized and it leads towards the highest level of employee motivation. At the same juncture the Tesco can experience the employee retention as well. It is another benefit that can show its expediency within the business entity. If job security is there along with the tension free working environment, then employees won’t leave the organization and stay associated for the longer period of time. It is something which is highly beneficial for the continuity of operations for the longer period of time.

Therefore diversity management represents a shift away from activities and assumptions based on affirmative actions to human resource management practices that reflect the workforce diversity.
Diversity Management Approaches
Traditional approaches of diversity management are based on 'discrimination-and-fairness' and 'access-and-legitimacy' themes which matches the demographic characteristics of people to those of marketplace (Thomas, D, 1996).
Companies that accommodate the special needs of the demographically diverse workforce (by redefining the structure of the work day for those with childcare and/or eldercare responsibilities, or providing qualified assistants and/or apparatus for employees with disabilities) will become more appealing places to work and will thereby reduce absenteeism and turnover costs. They have also asserted that organizations that value differences will cultivate non-traditional markets, by dint of their apparent progressiveness and their ability to assess non-traditional preferences; and will enjoy greater creativity, problem solving, and responsiveness as a result of the wider range of viewpoints brought to bear on tasks. (Cox and Blake, (1991)

Nowadays, the integration approach is used to manage diversity and the theme of this approach is to accept differences as part of group and appreciate diversity. Following figure depicts the evolution of diversity management approaches.
With the help of above study it can be concluded very articulately that the concept of inequality regime has a high level of learning’s for the organization and the principles given by Acker could be useful in implementing the change with the perspective of managing the diversity (Chung, Fam and Holdsworth, 2009). Tesco needs to adopt the concept of inequality regime just for improving the brand image among the employees and job seekers.



Figure 2
Source: Harvey & Allard, 2002
Diversity management initiatives require a change in thinking towards diversity and a paradigm shift in order to maximize its advantages. Diversity management approaches of organizations shall be based on following underlying principles to reap benefits of diverse workforce and convert it into a competitive edge.
An organisation may also have barriers in their practices, culture and policies (Bilimoria, Joy, & Liang, 2008). Resolving these issues has benefits for both the legality of the operating of the organisation and the multiplicity of their workforce. If senior management participated in only male orientated social events, such as attending football match, it may alienate women who generally may not participate in such events. Policy can also break both legality and potential for diversity by enforcing requirements such as 10 years continual service to an organisation in order to receive promotion into senior management. This continual service factor discriminates against women who are likely to have children, as it will exclude many from the opportunity to obtain the job. However, it is the individual differences within each person that provide the biggest challenge to achieving diversity.


Diversity management should work as a framework to position people as a necessary factor for organization success and promote dignity and respect among group members in organization. Diversity management should be evolved to strategic organization goal to influence all aspects of organization including leadership, management practices, marketing, product development, etc.
Therefore, to manage and improve individual potential, which is built upon those basic differences, in order to create collaboration work and reach the organizations’ strategic goals, every good administrator should be aware of those two different dimensions which can cause a violent conflict and also can be a determinating factor of each individual behavior. On the other hand, if the administrators manage this obstruction well, the result will yield good return. The most obvious dissimilarities of the primary and the secondary can be categorized into two aspects: Age Differences and Cultural Differences.

Diversity management most important principle requires a complete shift in thinking compared to mere observing and understanding demographic changes in the workforce. It requires a re-evaluation of beliefs and assumption to manage diversity.
As mentioned before diversity can be both visible and invisible; according to a model of total quality diversity by Rosado, diversity will be clearly classified into two dimensions: the primary and the secondary. The primary or Horizontal places emphasis on biology and all apparent differences, such as age, gender, race, ethnic, physical capability, etc. The secondary or Vertical focuses on psychology which is usually invisible, such as worldviews, religious beliefs, ethic, attitude, culture, language, way of learning and valuing, etc. The secondary dimension, in the other words, stresses on every different characteristic that originates from external factors of each individual; this gives rise to human behavior [8] .

Top management has to exemplify this shift of thinking for the management principle to be effective and employees are willing to become part of (Cox, 2001). In addition, a vision is an essential tool to implement the principles.
According to Holly Louise Watson, creating mission statements of teams or departments, which associate with organizations’ missions, can involve multigenerational work groups to conduct on the same track. This will make teams or departments gather together in a way of identical common goals instead of having differing perspectives because of generational differences [35] . Besides, employees will realize and understand precisely what they are working on which is essential for leading organizations to achieve organizations’ goals [36] . In addition, this is the way to promote a supportive and sympathetic work environment within organizations. In the Journal of Nursing Management by David Stanley, he supported that Policy development is another method to rally different generations’ perspectives regardless of what status they are. It may also be a good opportunity for a manager to consider any possible conflict which is better than finding the solution to resolve it afterward [37] .

Following figure depicts the relationship between diversity management and related princples.

Figure 3
Advantages of Diversity Management
Diversity management purpose is to maximize the potential of each diverse individual and use it for organization success.
Diversity is clearly beneficial to the organisation. Managing diversity should involve utilising the cultural differences in people's skills and embracing the diverse range of ideas and skills that exist in a diverse workplace in order to ultimately give the organisation a competitive edge. Benefits to diversity clearly outweigh the costs and evident advantages to workplace diversity are supported by various union groups and HRM practitioners. In order to be successful, diversity must be implemented within a strict legal framework and overcome hurdles relating to the practices and policies of organisations, as well as internal, individual barriers.

In this respect following are some of the advantages of diversity management:
' Highly motivated employees
' Innovation and creativity
' Cost reduction
' Organizational flexibility
' Problem solving
' Knowledge transfer
Workforce Diversity in Pakistan
Pakistan was born with diversity issues and unfortunately, is still struggling to reach an amicable settlement of these issues.
Diversity is the exclusivity which each and every employee brings the workplace or the work environment in an organization. Talking about diversity, we talk about the group which possesses individual qualities that are diverse from our behavior (Hostager & Meuse 2008). Differences between the employees include nationality, race, gender, work experience and family status. Other differences can be disabilities, physical appearance educational background as well. Valuing diversity at workplace is really important these days. Valuing diversity at workplace means creating a work environment by maximizing the potential of all the employees in which every employee feels included in the team (Hostager & Meuse 2008). By valuing diversity, it means we are acknowledging other's races; cultures have equal state all around the world. Valuing also means acknowledgment that there are many ways of viewing the world which includes solving problems and working together in the same environment.

After careful and realistic study of the events from the secession of East Pakistan in 1971 to current conflict in Balochistan, it can safely be said that Pakistan has not reached a consensual conception of the nation.
The major factor that can enable an organization to get over the mentioned challenging aspect is suggested by the Joan Acker’s. The concept recommended by the cited author is immensely beneficial with respect to handle the discriminatory issues and implementing the equality policies. Most studies conducted on the discriminatory behavior suggest towards the eradication of difference on the ground of gender, race, region, etc. But they missed out the fundamental conceptual knowledge transfer that could be treated as limitation of those studies. In the concept of inequality regimes the major concentration has been paid on to the fact that the inequality is a part of organization and it lies within in every area or department or activity (Chung, Fam and Holdsworth, 2009). In the study of inequality regimes the author has focused on the fact that organizations are supposed to lay down emphasize on the distribution of work in proper.

Communities / ethnicities belonging to different cultures with distinguished life styles, languages and different identities have politically mobilized in recent and distant past to create major crisis for the state and the government such as demands for political autonomy, separation etc.
Individual differences amongst people are a major hurdle to workplace diversity, as most people feel comfortable when working in homogeneous groups (Kreitz, 2008). The presence of diverse others places employees outside of their comfort zone and makes people resist embracing the presence of others. Furthermore, research by Kreitz (2008) shows that humans, and organisations as well, are in nature highly resistant to change, further complicating the successful implementation of diversity. Another individual, and highly problematic, barrier to diversity is the language barrier that exists to culturally diverse others. This prevents, and in some cases discourages, the full integration of cultural differences within organisations (Kreitz, 2008).

using the instances / existing practices leading to exploitation of deprived communities and minorities. The literature review undertaken by the group members revealed a precious finding in this respect : 'Cultural differences do not become a cause for conflict until the state neglects or exploits it' and 'Ethnic conflict and violence are dependent on the political system which serves to either attenuate or intensify feelings of ethnicity'.
According to Jeanne Brett, Kristin Behfar, and Mary C. Kern, exit is a rare strategy for reducing the issues of cultural differences. It is common that when people from different backgrounds work together, conflict arises easier than within a group of people who have identical backgrounds. If the conflicts cannot be worked out and approach a stalemate, teamwork will no longer be effective. Therefore, when employees or team members are not willing and happy to work with their department or team, it is necessary that the team should consider moving those people to other groups. This strategy is normally used with long-term team projects. In temporary team projects, team members can just be patient and wait until projects finish [54] . Asking one or several people to leave the team is regarded as a last resort of cultural resolutions. Exit can be formally conducted by organizations, or they can intentionally exit by themselves [55] .

(2)
In light of the task in hand, the above finding can be rephrased at an organizational level as 'Diversity issues do not become a cause for conflict until the top management (or simply management) neglects or exploits it' and 'Conflict among diverse individuals is dependent on the organization's diversity management policy or approach which serves to either attenuate of or intensify feelings of discrimination'
It is well known that 'General Work Environment' of an organization overlaps with its 'Task Environment' and managers simply cannot make decisions in complete disregard to changes or conditions in the 'Organizational Environment'. Therefore, it must be appreciated that attitudes and inclinations embedded in management practices, policies and thought process in general penetrate through and are carried by organizational members including top management.
Managing the diversity at workplace means creating that kind of environment that make use of contribution of people with different backgrounds (DeSouza 2008). So, organizations main perspective is to develop those strategies that can include different background, their perspectives and the family responsibilities for their employees (Hostager & Meuse 2008). They also need to recognize all the contribution that diversity has made for the purposed of generating new ideas and the technique of doing things. Diversity also covers the policy of equal employment opportunity (EEO). All the policies related to the equal employment opportunity are important foundation for the workplace diversity policy (Hostager & Meuse 2008).

Further, an organization simply cannot exist as a 'Closed System'.
Avoiding indulgence into political affairs, the group members are in complete agreement that work-force diversity problems and related ethnic and ethical issues exist the organizations in Pakistan whether Public, Private or Non-profits get affected by these issues like other aspects of country's everyday life, and are not similar to diversity issues of Japan or USA.
In an employee’s level of diversity openness an important role is played by Organisational culture as it helps in shaping the meanings and actions of the members. With respect to culture Organisations differ in the case of viewing dissimilarity. Diverse people were likely to incorporate to the existing culture. As a result assimilation to the dominant, existing culture, expected by the organisation are not open to diversity.


Following are the some recent trends in Pakistani workforce in relation to diversity:
a. Globalization, emerging minorities, and multi-culturism have created a diverse work-force environment globally which applies to Pakistan as well.
ANZ Bank has responded to the common trends of the Australian workforce with programs to attract and retain a diverse environment that reflects their customer base (ANZ, 2010). An organisation is focused on creating an inclusive culture where all employees are able to contribute, as they believe that diversity and inclusion are essential for high business performance (ANZ, 2010). By managing diversity within the organisation, ANZ is provided with the best talent and a wide variety of experience to achieve success within a global workforce.

Differences like age, culture, disabilities, race, religion and gender have emerged in the organizations and people from different regions and cities with different culture, race and religion combine and work together which creates differences among employees in terms of thinking, norms, values and religion.
As the companies of today are getting more and more diverse, the need of managing the diverse workfare is increasing. All Countries specially USA and Canada are having more diverse workforce everyday. So it is becoming important for the companies manage the diversity to get better results out of employees. Research stated that Forward-thinking Canadian organizations have recognized that competing successfully in the new global marketplace requires more than the latest technology, most efficient production processes, or most innovative products. Canadian organizations’ competitive strength is increasingly contingent on human resources. Competing to win in the global economy will require an ability to attract, retain, motivate and develop high- potential employees of both genders from a variety of cultural and ethnic backgrounds. The challenge facing today’s corporate leaders is to foster an organizational culture that values differences and maximizes the potential of all employees. In other words, leaders must learn to manage diversity.


b. Minorities and women are emerging in workplace because the have realized that it is the only way for them to prove themselves and get their rights.
c. Increasing inflation and worsening economic conditions are also two major reasons due to which women in Pakistan have opted to work in large numbers.
Large number of solutions with different variety can be supplied to the problems in service just by employing the diverse workforce in an organization. For sourcing and allocating resources solutions can be provided (Hostager & Meuse 2008). Employers from diverse background not only bring the individual talents but also the experiences in suggesting the ideas which are flexible in adapting to the markets which are fluctuating and also the demands of the customer (DeSouza 2008).

This has falsified the practices that were the part of workforce before when the traditional ways of work were followed and workforce was not diversified.
d. Elderly people are willing to do work even after retirement age due to increasing inflation and economic problems of Pakistan and to maintain their standard of living.
Successful organization's main focus is to inculcate and embed the main principles of diversity in their cultures and the management system. These principles of diversity really values for the organization same ways as they do business (DeSouza 2008). One can easily see the reflection of diversity in their approach to people management. This is the center element in leadership which is reinforced through performance feedback and assessment.

This creates a blend of young and old people in workplace. They have different goals, values, needs and experiences which create conflict of interest in workplace.
e. Due to globalization and increased number of minorities, multi-culturism can be observed in workforce.
Diversity is increasing everyday in everyday in every organization; In America 1 in 4 Americans belongs to a minority or is foreign-born. Women, who currently make up less than half the work force, are expected to fill 65 percent of the jobs created during this decade. “Whether you are a business owner, executive, salesperson or customer- service professional, your success will increasingly depend on your ability to function in a culturally diverse marketplace,” (Profiting in America’s Multicultural Marketplace’ Lexington Books) Over the next decade, companies realize that they must have a diverse workforce and that each member of that workforce must truly embrace principles of diversity to realize the longevity, growth, and increased profits. Women, people of color, and immigrants will soon hold almost three- quarters of all jobs in this country (Jackson et al., 1992; Johnston, 1991). b)

Times are gone when individuals from minorities could only dream of decent or higher positions in the organizations or state institutions.
f. Different cultures prevail in Pakistan because it has five provinces which diversify the work-force.
If a diversity program is unlikely to be profitable it will not be implemented (Bilimoria, Joy, & Liang, 2008). The monetary benefits such as new customers, better culture and strategic advantage involved in implementing such diversity need to outweigh the costs by gaining diversity at the expense of skill involved in pursuing it. The HR department within the organisation has a difficult task in convincing senior management that a diversity program can be beneficial to the organisation (D'Netto & Sohal, 1999).The argument often provided by senior management against workplace diversity is that it is disruptive to productivity and causes imbalance in the workplace (D'Netto & Sohal, 1999). As a result, the HR function need to be able to present the many advantages of diversity, and provide strong strategic reasoning to ensure that an effective diversity management is implemented.

Culture impacts humans behavior. If different people from different cultures join the workforce, they will have different values and behavior. In such situations, there is a need to handle diversity.
g. The response to workforce diversity management in public, private and non-profit organizations is distinctively contrasting.
As companies are becoming more and more diverse its becoming more and more important for companies to understand and manage it. The people of different background, races, religion creates diverse workforce. There is an importance of having diverse workforce to provide better performance. There are perspectives of managing the diverse workforce, which require organization leaders and managers of being responsible of attaining better diverse workforce.

Public sector organizations remain bureaucratic and confused while waiting for Government to start a drive for the purpose. Private organizations in Pakistan mostly focus on profit objective and opt to fulfill minimum ethical or legal requirements.
Nowadays, a perception regarding human resource management has become one of the central roles in part of organizational development. This perception indicates that human behavior management is getting more and more important because human is compared as the main engine making an organization achieve its desired goals. Since most private businesses and public businesses today have a new policy ‘global organization’ in order to expand the market, many organizations offer an opportunity for foreigners to play the role of potential development in different divisions, such as education, technology, and new philosophy.

Managers of Non-profits are mainly concerned with building a trustworthy picture of their organization for attracting donors.
h. The issue of gender diversity is prominent. Despite several concessions encouraging recruitment of women in workplaces, reluctance as regards treating them on equal basis and accepting their capabilities is glaringly visible.
Diversity at workplace also encourages the employees of the companies to perform to their highest ability (Hostager & Meuse 2008). Strategies can then be executed company-wide which results in higher productivity, profit and also the return on investment.

Instances and attitudes of harassing women are known to all.
i. The concept of a work-force diversity management policy based on transparent ethical principles and translated into organization's mission, governance principles, objectives, projects and day to day activities is found lacking.
Principles of workplace diversity should be incorporated with and highlight all the aspects of human resource management (DeSouza 2008). Aspects can be planning, selection, recruitment, performance appraisal, training and development etc (Hostager & Meuse 2008). All the organization should show their commitment to diversity and should integrate a flexible working condition which allows their employees to balance their work and other responsibilities in the organization.


j. The order of diversity found out by researchers is gender, age and ethnicity.
k. Female employees face more discrimination in private sector as compared to public sector mainly due to presence of Government Laws and their support.
Brand reputation: Other than the eradication of differences the organization can get the advantage of high level of brand reputation among the job seekers and existing employees of the company. Tesco is supposed to outrun their competitors in every situation and for the same purpose the removal of discrimination and inequality is required. The mentioned entity can gain the confidence of employees, which further lead towards the creation of brand reputation.


l. Employees generally love to work where managers are just and unbiased while dealing with their subordinates.
m. Financial constraints and education level of women are key determinants of their participation in work-force.
Top companies and organization make assessing and evaluating their diversity as the internal part of the organization and the management system. An employee satisfaction survey can easily accomplish the assessment for the company efficiently. It also helps the management team to decide which challenges and obstacles to diversity are present in your workplace (Hostager & Meuse 2008). It also determines which policies are to be added and which policies to be eliminated. Now to check the success of the workplace plan implementation, reassessment can be done.


n. Drastic changes are occurring in the proportion of women work-force as managers at school, college and university levels.
o. Pakistan is among the lowest ranked diverse countries in the world including gender diversity and female economic activities among the emerging economies of the world.
Diversity in workforce is growing in all countries special USA, Canada and Europe. With having more diverse work environment organization can produce better performance. It is important for the companies to know diversity and how to handle the issues relating to it. Also the need of the diverse workforce is getting more not only because there are different people but also because they can produce better results with having different types of people working.

As far as sectarian diversity is concerned, Pakistan falls in bottom five. The least diverse work-forces are in Poland, Pakistan, Hungary, Turkey and Czech Republic.
p. As per figures of 2009, male work-force of Pakistan was 41.91 Million and female work-force was 11.81 Million.
q. Articles 25, 27 & 38 protect the rights of Pakistani citizens for seeking employment by preventing discrimination on the basis of creed, race, religion etc.
Implementation of diversity in the workplace is a intervening challenge to all the advocates of diversity (DeSouza 2008). With the right use of employee assessments and research data advocates must build the customized strategy to maximize the effects of diversity in the workplace for their particular organization.


r. A 10% quota has been affixed for women in public sector organization with a right to compete for the remaining 90%. A new law for protection of women at workplaces making it legally binding for public and private organizations to frame policies and frameworks in order to provide a decent work environment to female staff.
Basically, workplace diversity strategies help the organization to build the relationship with the community and to enhance the contribution of its employees (DeSouza 2008). It also helps in improving the quality of its programs, products and the services delivered (Hostager & Meuse 2008).


s. Almost 74% of total female work-force is employed in agricultural sector, 12% each in manufacturing and services and less than 1% in each of construction, transportation, law enforcement etc. Almost 69% of female work-force in Pakistan is from Punjab.
Organizations are getting more concerned of developing the diverse workforce over the years to attain better result and competitiveness. Organizations have been advised to attract, develop, and retain males and females of all ages, skin colors, cultural backgrounds, and physical capacities to remain competitive (Cox and Blake, 1991). c)


Research Methodology
The purpose of this study is to answer the following questions:
A. What is diversity?
B. What are its effects?
C. What is diversity management?
D. What are diversity management approaches?
E. What are diversity management issues in Pakistani organizations?
For this purpose an in-depth literature review has been performed and survey has been conducted in local organizations to find the management approaches with respect to diversity management.
A diverse workforce is a reflection of a changing world these days. Diverse workforce in the organization brings the high values to the organization. Giving respect to all the nationalities working in the organization will benefit the workplace just by creating a competitive edge and also the increase in productivity as well (DeSouza 2008). By managing diversity at workplace benefits the employees by creating a fair and safe environment for them. Everyone in the organization has the access to opportunities and the challenges. Management tools in a diverse workforce should be used for giving education to all the employees about diversity and its issues which includes law and education (DeSouza 2008). Around the world, most of the places are made up of diverse cultures. So organization should learn how to adapt to them.

The survey questionnaire consists of five sections that explore diversity management related approaches used in organizations.
Data Collection
' Data Collection Format: Survey
' Data Collected from: Organizations + Universities
' Gender: Male / Female
' Responses: 40
' Major Targets: Experienced Professionals
Response Details:
' Gender:
o Male: 23
o Female: 6
' Age:
o 62% between 26y ' 30y.
Diversity also provides globalization. Diverse collection of employees in an organization provides diverse collection of skills which allows a company to provide the services to customers on global basis.


o 21% between 31y ' 40y.
' Experience:
o 55% between 6y ' 10y.
o 34% between 1y ' 5y.
Survey Results and Analysis
Survey was conducted successfully and results received were portraying the true picture of diversity implementation and actions taken for implementation in the organizations.
Assessment results to build and implement successful diversity in the workplace policies. As the economy is becoming global, the workforce in the organization is becoming increasingly diverse as well (Hostager & Meuse 2008). Success and competitiveness of the organization depends on the capability to manage the diversity in the workforce effectively.

Organizations usually are not following any strict code of conduct or any set of objectives to ensure diversity. Policies are not clear and employees usually are lesser aware of these policies. Equal opportunity policies are there but recruitment sections are not following the rules properly.
Encouraging employees of different department, to freely express their ideas and opinions, which give them, sense of equality among them.

Discriminations and favoritism are there and there are no procedures strictly implemented to avoid or eliminate these. Complaints procedure is not usually hidden but employees avoid using this channel as they think that this can create problems for them.
According to Jodi Carenys, organizational structure is an important component of organizational management; it has an influence on proficiency and productivity level of organizations. An inappropriate structure may not cause problems in the early stages, but it can cause problems in long-term such as an obstacle in work processes, a decrease in quality and quantity of work, a change of organizational culture and value, negative relationships and attitudes among employees, etc. In terms of multicultural management, employers should be more concerned about organizational structure since cross-cultural conflicts arise easier with unsuitable organization structure [48] .

Employees are also not satisfied the way complaints are handled.

Some statistical results collected from survey are as:
- Policies are not published very clearly so around 40% of the total employees are not aware of those.

Under this study it was stated that HRM policies and practices gives shape to the employee attitudes and their behaviour and strengthen a diversity open organisational culture. 50 structured interviews which were conducted by phone and face to face contacts with those people who represent diverse stakeholders were obtained.


- Complaints procedures are not clear so employees do not know where to and how to complaint (40% of employees)?
- Complaints procedures are not reliable so employees do not rely whether complaint will be handled properly or not?
o Another negative point is that employees think they can be the victim of bullying, favoritism etc.
- Favoritism is widely spread. This is the thinking of around 69% of audience meaning that some specific employees gets more opportunities, rewards, benefits from others.
If possible involve all the employees in the organization in putting together and executing the diversity initiatives in the workplace (Hostager & Meuse 2008).


- Discriminations and harassment are made majorly based on gender which means that dominant gender takes advantage of their dominance and consider others as minority and takes additional benefit like additional work load, cutting jokes, passing comments etc.
- Harassment policy is usually very strict in organizations but complaints are not recorded due to un-reliable procedures. From the survey, we saw that 74% of total audience preferred not to complaint however above 80% has opted to personally experience the same.
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- Organizations don't make any special setup for the special needs of anyone so intend not to hire anyone with such issues. (62% of audience)
(To make people comfortable to give independent opinions, Instead of any Organization name, word 'University' was used in survey)
Detailed results are enclosed here and some important are shown below in graphical form:


Figure 4

Figure 5

Figure 6

Figure 7

Figure 8

Figure 9
Recommendations
In order to move forward, we need to change our originating hypothesis which are primarily negative, emphasizing discrimination and victimization, to explore diversity from a more positive and proactive stance.

The study states that the management is provided with tasks of human resources management with a better kind of working systems and the attitude of the employees for the provisions about reasonable working conditions and the service of the customers by the research. The diversity management will persist to captivate management scholars as it undertakes progress in the case of knowledge, and innovations that lead to the boost in productivity and profits, trades which are done globally and increases the trustworthiness of employees and client and uses employee skills and abilities.

Questions, such as when and in what ways diversity aids in organizational success, move the focus from management and control to opportunity and possibility. Examples include asking subgroups to describe how they would like to be treated, what they want others to know about them, and what aspects of their work environment would need to change to create a highly functional organizational context with diverse employees.
Selecting the survey contributor or the provider that offers comprehensive reporting is the key decision for organization. This report will be the beginning structure of your diversity in the workplace plan. The plan made must be complete, inclusive, attainable and measurable as well. It is the organization that will decide what changes need to be made and also the timeline for the change to be attained.


Based on our review, we conclude that it is challenging, but possible, to develop an integrative theory of diversity. Such an effort will require efforts for change that reflect the human will and experience.
The most important commitment is of the executive and the managerial commitment which is must for the organization (DeSouza 2008). Leaders and managers of different departments must add in various diversity policies into every aspect of the organization's utility and purpose. Another important task is the management cooperation and the participation which is required to create culture which is advantageous to the success of the organization plan.

It is clear from our review that there are core human issues and concerns embedded in the diversity literature that could form the basis for such a theory. Diversity objectives should be set and ensured to be achieved within organizations.
Diversity within an organisation can be difficult and expensive to accomplish. Substantial barriers exist in both overcoming laws related to workplace diversity, the actual process of implementing it within an organisation and also the internal characteristics of the individual.

Few important objectives should be like these:
- Diversity in Leadership
- Adaptable work practices
- Respect
- Diversity support
These objectives should be assessed regularly as well as progress in achieving these.
The role of organisational culture that exists in the system of workplace and practices has been identified by the research program. The contemporary approach to the diversity management is new.

These should be published in annual reports.
'
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Manzoor, Alkinza (2011) 'Managing Workforce Diversity in Pakistan', Daily Nation
Richea Maria-Magdalena (2013) 'Management of Ethical Principles and Ethical Behaviour in the Non-profit Organizations.
Buch, K. and Wetzel, D., 2001. Analyzing and realigning organizational culture. Leadership & Organization Development Journal. 22(1). pp.40-44.

Shaping a Casual Liaison or a Myth'?, An Elsevier Publication
Rana Nadir Idrees, Abdus Sattar Abbasi, & Muhammad Waqas (2013) 'Systematic Review of Literature on Workforce Diversity in Pakistan, Middle East Journal of Scientific Research
Farman Afzal, Kashif Mahmood, Farah Samreen, Muhammad Asim, Muhammad Sajid (2013) 'Comparison of Workforce Diversity in Public and Private Business Organizations ', European Journal of Business and Management Vol (5) No. (5)
ACCA, IFC (2010) 'Gender Diversity on Boards in Pakistan' Conceived and commissioned by IFC with the Govt. of Netherland

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