Sample Essay on Discrimination in Education within the United States - Blog
Discrimination refers to the practice of providing preferential treatment, or denying equal treatment, for a given a person on the basis of his or her demographic characteristics. This sample education essay explores the issue of discrimination in education within the United States.
There are many forms of discrimination, besides the more familiar forms like race and gender, based on ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, age , disability or handicap, and sexual harassment. The mentioned characterization
refers to a situation of the direct discrimination
, in which a person is treated adversely directly on the basis of a prohibited ground. Indirect discrimination, refers to a situation in which an apparently neutral provision or practice is discriminatory in its effects
. Besides direct and indirect discrimination, we may use the term institutional discrimination. Institutional discrimination refers to the practices or procedures in a company or an institution, or even the society as a whole, which are structured in a way that tends to produce discriminatory effects
, for example in the
Apartheid regime in South Africa.
Discrimination in public education
Broadly speaking, discrimination within the context of the public schooling system can be understood as reflecting discrimination within American society more broadly. For example, minority racial/ethnic populations within the United States disproportionately find themselves relying on state-provided welfare because they live in lower socioeconomic brackets; they also disproportionally tend to lack equitable access to social resources, such as healthcare (Richardson and Norris).
Writing essays on discrimination covers important topics like sexual orientation, disability, gender, racism, education, and religions. Discrimination essay presents how people are judged by others due to different reasons like
skin color or social status
. In most cases, some people feel they are more superior, hence judge others based on their perception. Writing a good discrimination essay should include how individuals are likely to be affected by discriminatory acts.
When this is translated to the context of education, students from minority populations—especially Blacks and Hispanics—often tend to struggle to achieve academic success. To a significant extent, this is a reflection of the less privileged backgrounds from which these students often emerge.
Types of discrimination exist from your gender to ethnicity, from your status in a society to your preferences in dating. What all these types of discriminations have in common is that it segregates one group from another. You discriminate when you think of someone differently just
because they are poorer than you, smarter than you, overweight, too short, looks gay, have different political beliefs. All these are forms of discrimination but the most widely publicized forms of discrimination are racial, ethnic, and gender. Racial discrimination has happened since that late 1800's with slavery. Issues of racial tension between blacks and whites are well known. Ethnic discrimination, for example
, against Chinese and Native Americans, occurred there after when minorities immigrated to European lands. Mainly, the fight has always been against the dominant group which was whites. Gender discrimination also occurred when women wanted to be treated equal to men. In this case, the dominant group was mainly white men. Women wanted equal rights such that of being able to vote.
For example, a child from an impoverished family would perhaps have been less likely to have his mother read to him on a regular basis, or more generally have his parents stress the value of a good education.
Although there is no wide agreement as to the "cause" of discrimination, there is a consensus that they constitute a learned behavior. The internalization of discrimination starts with parents and, later, teachers--the groups primary in the formation of attitudes
within children. The media and social institutions
solidify discriminatory attitudes, giving them social legitimacy, since discrimination is learned. At best, one can reduce discrimination. Society looks most often to education and legislation to alleviate discrimination--for reasons still not
clearly known, intergroup contact alone is not enough to reduce discrimination. On one hand, multicultural education, whether direct or indirect
, constitute the mainstay of educational efforts to eliminate discrimination. On the other hand, the emphasis on civil rights, enlightened immigration policies, and mandates for quota hiring are the cornerstone of legal approaches to alleviating the effects of
discrimination. The most overlooked area in resolving the problems of
discrimination lies in the web of close relationships where genuine feelings of love can be fostered and strengthened.
Schools reflect national standards
This has sometimes led into the actual structural discrimination within public schools. For example, Kohli has discussed the practice of tracking that has been utilized by some schools, which involves different students being placed on different educational paths over the years on the basis of the past academic performance.
The effects of discrimination in society are reflecting on race, religion, and disable discrimination. One of the main reasons cause violence is race discrimination. It is easy to find evidence from Hollywood movies. The black people always fight
with white people because they were discriminated. Now in Australia
, the aborigines are discriminated. Many people do not understand their culture, so the Australian looks down on these people. In addition religion discrimination can endanger the world peace. Different religion has different god and the
numbers of believers are huge. Once the conflict between different religions break out, which can easily cause a world war. Discrimination is about exclusion an d subordination and it effectively conveys an explicit message of differentness and inferiority of the victim - Humiliation.
Kohli has summarized the problematic nature of this practice in the following way:
"Many education researchers have argued that tracking perpetuates class inequality and is partial to blame for the stubborn achievement gap in the U.S. educational system—between white and Asian students on one side, and black and Latino students on the other" (paragraph 5).
On the one hand, it is arguable that advanced students should be provided with advanced opportunities. The problem with systematic tracking, though, would be that underachieving students may get more or less abandoned by the educational system.
As to the root cause, discrimination appears to be no clear acceptance of any theory of causation but that discrimination often causes a chain reaction of disadvantages. For instance, it should be noted that there is a connection also
between discrimination and social distance
, given that it is usually psychologically easier to discriminate against people that one is not familiar with.
Insofar as these students are more likely to come from certain demographic backgrounds than others, this would amount to a form of structural discrimination in education.
Minority students and teacher discrimination
Moreover, discrimination in public schools can also manifest in terms of differential treatment of minority students by teachers (relative to majority students), based at least partially on cultural expectations about how different "kinds" of students are likely to behave. For example, the comprehensive data compiled and presented by the U.S. Department of Education reveals teachers exhibit traits of unconscious prejudice and discipline black students more often than white counterparts.
As far as historical records show, no society or nation has been immune to discrimination, either as victim or victimizer. Contemporary forms of discrimination date back to when European colonizers penetrated and transformed previously isolated societies and peoples
. The more extreme forms of discriminatory practices include
genocide, slavery, legislated discrimination (such as Apartheid), discriminatory immigration laws, and disenfranchisement. Less extreme forms of prejudice and discrimination, but nevertheless pervasive and oppressive, include social exclusion at
the institutional level (such as in schools and hospitals), and the more subtle forms practised by the media. Some groups appear to suffer from more persistent forms of discrimination, such as Jews (as in anti-Semitism) and the Roma (a.k.a. Gypsies), regardless of time and place.
To an extent, this issue may be propelled by a kind of dangerous symbiosis: on the one hand, Black students perhaps do misbehave more often, due to their negative expectations regarding the educational system; and perhaps teachers are also more sensitive to this misbehavior because they are essentially expecting it. The onus, though, to break this cycle would clearly fall on the teacher; and the failure to do so would produce discrimination.
The third paragraph describes the implication of these past events, for example, even though activities like slavery has been abolished, racial discrimination is a common practice witnessed in many nations, many people still suffer
Recent college protests
Recently, the news has been filled with reports of protests emerging on college campuses regarding the issue of racial discrimination. The Associated Press reported on the 9th of November 2015, for example, that at the University of Missouri:
"black students have complained of racial slurs and other slights on the overwhelmingly white, 35,000-student flagship campus of the four-college system" (paragraph 2).
Protesters at this university called for the resignation of the president of the system; and in fact, they actually got this, along with the resignation of the chancellor as well. The protest, though, would seem to have pertained not so much to racial discrimination within the educational system per se, as to the fact that leaders within the university were doing little to address the broader problem of a culture of racism and discrimination on campus.
Discrimination is when someone is treated unfairly or differently. Discrimination against is when a person is treated unfairly or badly because the person is one of a particular group. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirms that all persons must be protected any kind of discriminations, or even its inciting.
In any event, this kind of protest has emerged at several other campuses in the United States as well.
Regarding one of these protests, Hartocollis and Bidgood have reported the following:
"the students who gathered on Wednesday spoke of 'microagressions'—tone-deaf slights directed toward minority students—and continuing difficulties of being a student of color on a contemporary college campus and encouraged their peers to raise awareness of them" (paragraph 17).
Again, the main issue here is not specifically that minority students feel that they are receiving a lower quality of education; rather, the issue is broader in scope and pertains to matters of respect and representation for minority students within the college campus setting. It thus opens up to the broader sociological problems regarding race that have plagued the United States for centuries.
Discrimination produces immense effects in the psychological, social, political, and economic domains. Whether intended or not, the effects are compounded by the loss of self-worth, a sense of alienation from the wider society, political
disempowerment, and economic inequalities
. Prejudice and ethnic hostilities constitute a major danger to peace both within a nation and among nations." As a consequence, the emergence of a new global moral order increasingly provides a leverage point to counter the effects of prejudice
and discrimination. While many agree that the various international instruments to protect people against prejudice and discrimination are still not universally followed or even implemented, it is clear that a new international consciousness is indeed emerging and is, in fact, intensifying.
Racially motivated police shootings and relation to school discrimination
In particular, it is worth considering the possible relationship between this recent wave of college protests against discrimination on the one hand, and the recent string of police shootings of civilians on the other. Notably, for example, the University of Missouri flagship campus is located just 120 miles away from the town of Ferguson, where Michael Brown, a young Black man, was shot to death by a police officer.
In some countries, discrimination against somebody on the basis of race, sex, or religion is illegal for jobs or housing. Even in those countries where discrimination unlawful, it still takes place for reasons not covered by
the law. In some other countries, discrimination against somebody is legal or even official government policy. This especially takes place in countries in which there is an official religion, and people of other religions are discriminated against.
It is possible that these events have had the effect of sensitizing young people in the United States to issues of race: although the commonplace assumption is that the United States is now a post-racial society, events such as the shooting of Michael Brown starkly reveal that this is not the case. One obvious reaction to the protesters on the college campuses would be, of course, that they are creating much ado about more or less nothing.
The last essay paragraph is the concluding statement summarizing all the main topic arguments. The conclusion should restate the thesis statement by presenting to the audience how racial discrimination is a problem that needs to
be addressed. For example, discrimination is still common among many nations and our society today. Many people suffer because of their color, gender or ethnic background. We all need to stop racial discrimination because we are equal. Each and everyone deserves to be treated with respect. We should not judge others. We need to embrace our differences to promote peace.
But from the perspective of the protesters, reaching such a conclusion would itself be indicative of the very racism and discrimination that they are protesting within education in particular and American society in general.
The issue of Affirmative Action and discrimination in American schools
When considering the relationship between discrimination and education, it is impossible to avoid a consideration of the concept of affirmative action and racism. Broadly speaking, affirmative action refers to the policy of establishing quotas that must be met within a given institution—such as a university—regarding the number of minority persons who are accepted into the institution.
The second paragraph presents detailed information about racism to describe organ of racism. For example, throughout history, individual differences based on race, religion, and ethnicity has been the sources of many social problems
. Racial tension and civil wars are caused by this difference. According to American history, African Americans were a group of individuals who migrated from Africa to America as slaves were discriminated by other groups because of their skin color and their low economic status
For example, a given university may have the policy that a certain percentage of the student body must come from a Black racial/ethnic background. In practice, this can sometimes mean (for example) that a less objectively qualified Black student may gain access to a university over a more objectively qualified White student, due to the fact that the quota regarding Black students has to be met.
An essay structure should contain five paragraphs: starting with an introduction which is a brief summary of the topic, followed by the body which describes the topic of discussion. The essay body contains three paragraphs showing the intensity of the problem. The last paragraph is a conclusion. The conclusion provides a summary of the essay discussion and calls for the audience to action.
In principle, the policy of affirmative action can be understood as a form of providing reparations to people from minority backgrounds due to their historical treatment within the United States. As Cobb has put it:
"The unspoken divide between black people and white people—whether over reparations, affirmative action, or the question of paying N.C.A.A. athletes—comes down to a question of history" (paragraph 7).
Affirmative action in education is premised on the idea that due to their historical marginalization within the United States, people from minority backgrounds, and especially Blacks, may have a sociologically less equitable chance of making it into colleges and proceeding to meet with success within society. Therefore, quotas are established in order to offset this effect of historical discrimination and thus level the playing field.
Our world has always been faced with the problem of discrimination. It is one of the most discussed topics nowadays and throughout history. In all countries there is most likely at least one type of discrimination that affects different
groups of people. The definition of discrimination is the denial of opportunity or equal rights for a specific group of people that may be differentiated by things such as their religion, color of skin, or gender. Discrimination can be confused with other terms such as prejudice and stereotype. The world we live in has been struggling with this sensitive subject for as long as we have recorded. Stereotypes are images held in our minds in regards to certain racial or cultural groups
, without consideration of whether the images held are true or false. Stemming from stereotypes is prejudice. The prejudicial attitude occurs when we prejudge a person, good or bad, on the basis that the stereotypes associated with the person or group being
prejudged are true. Discrimination is the combination of the terms mentioned above, but involves actually acting out with unfair treatment, directing the action
towards the person or group. Prejudice and discrimination do not just occur racially, but it is found among gender, religion, culture, and geographical background. Remember that prejudice is a result of attitude and discrimination is a result of action.
In summary, the present essay has consisted of a discussion of several aspects of the issue of discrimination in education within the United States. The essay began by considering discrimination within the public school system, proceeded to discuss the recent protests at colleges across the nation, and finally reflected on the concept of affirmative action and its relationship to discrimination in education.
The keywords that need to be looked into before delving the topic in question are 'discrimination' and 'disturbing'. According to the Oxford Dictionary, disturbing means causing distress or worry or anxiety, upsetting, an unpleasant mental state by such effects as irritation
, unfairness and distraction. Discrimination, brings the meaning unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice and partiality. It can lead to emotions such as frustration and anger. In humans, it is a mild or serious form of suffering, often with anger about this, in particular, if applicable
, anger at the person or persons who caused it. This essay examines the cause and effects of discrimination in it's various forms, on an individual, society or nation.
An important conclusion that can be drawn from this discussion is that the relationship between discrimination and education in the United States is primarily a structural one. That is, contemporary discrimination is based not so much on individual-level malice against minority persons but rather population-level structural factors that predispose persons from minority populations to have diminished access to all the opportunities of the educational system.
Discrimination essays can describe several prejudiced acts like discrimination, based on religion, racial discrimination, national origin and gender. Discrimination essay describes unfair treatment towards a group of individuals by others
who see themselves as superior individuals.
Associated Press. "University of Missouri Race, Discrimination Protests Grow after Athletes Jump In." NOLA. 9 Nov. 2015. Web. 19 Nov. 2015. http://www.nola.com/education/index.ssf/2015/11/university_of_missouri_race_di.html.
Cobb, Jelani. "What We Talk About When We Talk About Reparations." New Yorker. 29 May 2014. Web. 19 Nov. 2015. http://www.newyorker.com/news/daily-comment/what-we- talk-about-when-we-talk-about-reparations.
Hartocollis, Anemona, and Jess Bidgood.
The second part of writing an essay is to review all the details of the document to ensure that every detail is presented in a professional manner. The author needs to review his work to ensure that the essay sentences are logically arranged. All the paragraphs need to
follow the standard essay structure. The essay should contain flowing sentences for the audience to follow through from the first paragraph up to the last paragraph. The author needs to use simple language to convey his arguments
"Racial Discrimination Protests Ignite at Colleges across the U.S." New York Times. 11 Nov. 2015. Web. 19 Nov. 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/12/us/racial-discrimination-protests-ignite-at- colleges-across-the-us.html?_r=0.
Kohli, Sonali. "Modern-Day Segregation in Public Schools." Atlantic. 18 Nov. 2014. Web. 19 Nov. 2015. http://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2014/11/modern-day- segregation-in-public-schools/382846/.
Richardson, L. D., and M. Norris. "Access to Health and Health Care: How Race and Ethnicity Matter." Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 77 (2010): 166-177. Print.
Sacks, David, and Peter Thiel.
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
"The Case against Affirmative Action." Stanford Alumni. 2013. Web. 19 Nov. 2015. https://alumni.stanford.edu/get/page/magazine/article/?article_id=43448.
U.S. Department of Education. Civil Rights Data Collection. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2015 http://ocrdata.ed.gov.