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DS 3006 Critical Thinking Chong Shear Leen DS3006 Critical Thinking Ms.

Shariffah Bahyah 27th November 2009 The Grade I Deserve for the Critical Thinking Course At the beginning of this semester, we were asked by lecturer what Critical Thinking is, but most of us do not know what it is or maybe there are some students do know but just that they do not speak out their answer, therefore none of us answer this question.

According to her, it is to let us learn how to think from a different point of view.
Well, learning in a pin-drop silence is not a way to support practicing critical thinking that occurs in classroom. We should do it in a way where thinking and sharing is developed along the class. This kind of practice will in turn approach students without any monotonous moment. This is a type of critical thinking, reasonable and reflective thinking that will lead to sound decision to be sought. Using the mode of teaching with critical thinking, the class should start with a given topic. Discussions and dialogue can be started up among students, and lecturer may begin to raise some questions in between, derive the students with different solutions and justify them accordingly. I believe that critical thinking as a strategy and a deep thinking. It is important not only to know how to use critical thinking in class but also reflect this area of knowledge as a useful subject. Nowadays, critical thinking helps students to think and develop confidence ultimately. When a lecturer starts to give explanations, critical thinking acts as a process of error detection with reasons. I think critical thinking practices in class are really useful especially when lecturer seem to be novice in using questioning, reasoning and providing thinking times.

At first I am thinking, why should I take this subject, as it is not related to the course which I choose to study (I am taking Business and Hospitality Course). Educational system nowadays for primary schools and secondary schools are normally provided with memorization-based education, students are expected to absorb that information passively then repeat what they memorize in the test or examination paper.
Develop a thesis. Your thesis is your central argument, and your entire paper should be based upon your thesis. A strong thesis gives specific information about the topic you're addressing as well as your primary arguments. Give your primary reasons for your arguments and, if you are responding to a text, a brief statement of the author's arguments. For example, you might argue, "Kant argues that ethics are based on a categorical imperative, but this categorical imperative does not provide guidance for all ethical dilemmas." This statement provides a succinct summation of the argument and hints at the direction the paper will take.

According to Bassham, G. et al. (2008), ‘…is to teach students how to think- that is, how to become independent, self-educated thinkers and learners.’ Without the ability to think critically, every situation that a person comes across would have to be considered in isolation from all other situations. When a person encounters a problem that is a new one, he or she may able to use critical thinking to solve those problems.
People with critical thinking have the consistency of living rationally. He will be able to understand logical connections between ideas. Reasons will be relying on instead of emotion. Thinking critically means seeing things from many perspectives with an open minded way. A critical thinker is able to understand what happened, use information given to solve problems, besides seeking relevant information which will be able to help him. Also, he can identify, construct and evaluate problems faced. Critical thinking can always be used in order to enhance the process of work and social institutions.

Therefore, the grade in my mind, that I deserve to get for this subject, is grade B because of the academic performance and the effort that I will put during my exam time. The marks that I have for my test is 66 over 100, while the marks I got for my mid-term examination is 12.9 over 20. Besides, I attended all the class since the beginning of this semester, I never miss a class.
Also, we can enhance the environment. Critical thinking in class, if facilitated with physical and intellectual environment, will encourage a spirit of discovery. For example, seats can be arranged in a way that students share the 'stage' with professors and all can interact with each other. This in turns will help to minimize the passive teaching where many of the students nowadays faced. Visual aids in class can be encouraged too! Posting signs such as 'why do I think so?', 'is this a fact or opinion?' or 'what would happen if….?' this will reminds students how they should be answering questions. Most importantly, students' attention will be directed into a certain level that it's periodically to the signs. The signs have the meaning to emphasize the idea of transferring and showing many thinking strategies and skills which apply to different topic and problems.

I will continue with full attendance, until this semester end, if nothing unexpected happens. Therefore, until now, I have got 8.2 marks over 10 marks for attendance. The coursework marks which include test and mid-term examination that I have known so far are marks 40 over 60, and I have had marks 27.7 out of 40. I will get 29.5 out of 40 with a full attendance that worth total 10 marks. In order for me to get at least 65 marks, or grade B in this subject, I still need to gain another extra 35.5 marks in the final paper and final exam. According to the prediction for the result in final paper and final exam which base on my test and mid-semester examination result, I will get 12 marks for my final paper and 25 marks for my final examination.
Once mastering use of critical thinking, it is as if like have well mastered many other skills as well. According to my research, there are three important components which we can find from critical thinking: theory, practice and attitude.

By adding up this forecast result in final paper and final examination and the marks that I have got in

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DS 3006 Critical Thinking the 40 percent coursework marks, I will get a total of 66.5 marks, which over the minimum requirement for grade B, which I deserve to get in my mind. Stated in Huber, D. (2006, pg 134), the root of concept of critical thinking can be traces to Socrates, the ancient Greek philosopher.’…It is important to ask deep questions and probe into thinking sequence, seek evidence, closely examine reasoning and assumptions, analyze basic concept, and trace out implications’. People often cannot rationally think of the solution for problem of it is related or even not related to them due to our self-belief, the limited knowledge and the educational system which is too narrow for us to think in different dimension.

We have many different levels of thinking. Some of the things that we do in our lives, such as breathing, walking, blinking, etc become almost instinctive and we really do not have to think much about them. Some things require more thought, such as deciding what to eat, or what to wear for a particular occasion. There are even higher levels of thinking and these include our critical thinking abilities. Many scholars have noted that critical thinking is more of a skill than a process and it mainly consists of evaluating arguments. It is a purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanations of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, or contextual considerations upon which the judgment is based (Astleitner 2002). In general, "critical thinking" is a mental activity of evaluating arguments or propositions and making judgments that can guide the development of beliefs and taking action. It has also been found that experts from economy and education nominated critical thinking as the most important skill in knowledge management (Astleitner 2002).

After I have study critical thinking, it helps me in better thinking, and I know that this skill will assist me to survive better in my future career because that is the reason why I am studying here. I have absorbed knowledge such as to review an article by evaluating its argument, does it support by point which is valid or cogent, is the argument follows logical correctness and more.
Outline your paper by focusing on arguments that support your thesis. Draw on evidence if you are required to do research. If your paper is merely analytical, you'll need to provide logical arguments in favor of your point or analysis of the point to which you are responding. If you're comparing a work of literature to another work, try listing similarities and differences in your outline. Stay away from tangential points and emotional ploys. Stick to the most compelling evidence and arguments that support your thesis.

We do practice to refute the argument with our point in order to understand better about the critical thinking skills that we have learnt in class. However, the part which I like most is categorical logic and propositional logic.
Recently, critical thinking has become very popular in educational circles. The teaching skill in Malaysia is vogue especially among the content used for the higher education. However, it does not really inspire students in active learning or critical thinking. Students are placed in a more passive type of studying compared as teacher will usually do all the lectures, explaining and most of the thinking.

Though is it not easy to solve the questions sometimes, but I feel like I am attending mathematical class when lecturer teaching these 2 chapter, which is more akin to practice skills if compare to other chapter that need better English language knowledge.
Also, critical thinking skills help one to develop independence. Learning is not just about a measure of teaching; it's a measure of capacity. A person can only learn something if his mind had the capacity to do so. Students have the chance to think of themselves, to question hypothesis and to test the alternative hypothesis against known facts. Critical thinking skills not only give students the ability to understand what they have been taught, but also to build the knowledge without step- by- step guidance. Students will build up their knowledge upon themselves. It is not just about the ability of one's memorization or lessons' absorb in a particular time given.

These 2 chapters assist me to study critical thinking better and easier because it is a formal system which allows me to determine whether a sentence or argument is logic or not. Hence, it will help me to gain a better grade in critical thinking because I will try my best for higher marks in final paper and final examination.
Secondly, critical thinking helps develop problem solving skills and think critically. If a person is constantly in a state of stress, he will be more incline of defending himself against perceived threats. When one's brain is under stress, he cannot be creative anymore in a sense that no new things will be absorbed into the mind. This is because the mind will shut down the learning capacity and goes into 'classical survival mode', which is a type of protection to what is still in the mind and ward off the possible new invasion of knowledge. As a result, a better alternative, such as relaxing critical thinking activities, will eventually come to a success.

Due to the moderate performance in the test and mid-term examination, I would therefore forecast my result for this essay to be moderate as well. As stated in Craver, K. W. (1999, pg3.), ‘…Critical thinking reflects self-regulation of the thought process’. Lecturer may teach us what critical thinking is, and the process to apply all the skills.
Besides, critical thinking teaches us how to differentiate emotion and reason. No matter how logical we are, when come to facing problems, we do have emotions and argues on accepting ideas and solutions. Critical thinking helps us to separate the two, and as a result, we will not be easily interfered.

We, who as a student, are the one that should learn all the knowledge because lecturer cannot be with us until the end of the day, or at least they are not allowed to be with us during examination period.
Instructors as well as others should go through some professional development and certain consultation on learning experiences and expanding teaching repertoires. Professor should take up the job and use strategies by helping students with assuming greater ownership of their learning. They ought to move away from teacher- centered and discipline- focused instruction. Students should be encouraged to have more curiosity and discover their studies.

I do admit that I am not that good in English writing skills because of my poor grammar and lack of reading, and I cannot improve much within a month, therefore I probably cannot gain higher marks in final paper.
One of the places where I feel I have had to use my critical thinking skills is in the area of gauging information from the Internet. Gilster (1997, p. 87) regarded critical thinking as the most important skill when using the Internet, because the Internet is full of false, incomplete, obsolete, etc. information. In the era of the Internet and of information society, "critical thinking" represents a major qualification. In terms of using my critical thinking skills, I would say they consisted of identifying and analyzing arguments, of considering external influences on arguing, of scientific analytic reasoning, and of logical reasoning. As relevant synonyms for this definition of critical thinking, also everyday reasoning, informal reasoning, or pragmatic reasoning were used. There is also a close connection to research from Cognitive Psychology, Philosophy, and Linguistics referring to inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, causal reasoning, to abductive reasoning/inference, to Bayesian reasoning, to probabilistic reasoning, to syllogistic reasoning, to nonmonotonic reasoning, to adaptive thinking, or to intuitive judgment (Astleitner 2002).

However, I will need to obtain at least 63 marks in final examination in order to achieve the grade that I wish to deserve. I am quite confidence with the diagramming part, categorical reasoning part and propositional logic.
Attitudes are important in the component of critical thinking too. Knowledge as well as practice is needed in producing good critical thinking. Constant practice will results in improvement only if when one uses the right kind of encouragement and attitude. As to enhance one's reasoning, he must be good at differentiating the importance of demonstrate on reasons for appropriate actions to be made. He must also be willing to involve in debate, making mistakes, and breaking old habits.

Though I am not so good in paraphrasing, inductive reasoning, recognising arguments, and fallacies, but I do believe that if I will do better by practice more. I probably will gain more than half of the points in final examination paper for section A which is multiple-choice question part that contribute 30 out of 100 marks, and section B which is categorical reasoning, propositional logic and inductive reasoning part that contribute 30 out of 100 marks.
Draft the body of your paper. If you're responding to a text, summarize the main arguments in the first few paragraphs. If you're developing an argument of your own, outline your ideas in the first paragraph or two. Devote each subsequent paragraph to a distinct argument or piece of evidence in favor of your point. Anticipate objections. Outline the criticisms another person might have of your argument, and explain why these criticisms don't apply.

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DS 3006 Critical Thinking Critical thinking skill is one of the skills that can be implement in the future career for greater success if compare to those who did not learn Critical Thinking before.

It is very important to make decisions the right decisions quickly, and this usually requires critical thinking on the part of the decision maker (Abelson and Levi 1998; Carroll and Johnson 1990). Decisions can be very simple (deciding what you are going to eat for lunch today) or very complex (deciding where and how to build your house). Thus, how much time a person ends up making a decision depends on the complexity of the situation and the nature of the decision. For managers in an organization, some decisions can be very critical for the firm. It is important that managers take responsibility for their actions and learn to make the right decisions in the appropriate amount of time. Taking a long time to make a simple decision and making a complex decision quickly can both have drastic effects on the organization. This is why it is important for managers to be able to do some critical thinking before making the decisions. But, sometimes, the managers are not allowed to make certain decisions because of the nature of the organizational structure. A more centralized model of organization would not allow the managers to make certain decisions and a bureaucracy would also have its hindrances.

Stated in Regal, P.J. (1990, pg80.) ‘ …critical thinking skills are also important from the individual’s point of view, if only in terms of his or her relative ability to compete and survive’. Knowledge is powerful, if we have the skills to use it correctly. Millionaires could live without their elite schools certificate or their property, but intelligence were their main assets as they could not manage to reach the stage of millionaire without their poor judgement in their business.
Well, don't be too absolute on anything and yet not to be too fearful on criticism. Try avoiding from using absolutes such as never and remember to use them only when you have complete trust on something. Always ask for other's opinion because most properly they will offer a total new angle of understanding which could change our view.

After studying critical thinking for a semester, with the knowledge that I have gained in the class and self-reading, therefore I do have the confidence that I deserve to get B in critical thinking subject due to the support point that provided in this essay and also with the perseverance that I will study hard for final examination.
Creative thinking is also a way of improving critical thinking. This exercise can translate into creative process such as writing. Through practice, we will be able to find our ability to find new ways of challenging ourselves. There are many popular games which encourage critical thought. Well, games like Sudoku require good focus and critical thinking.

(1,192 words)

Reference: Bassham, G., Irwin, W., Nardone, H., & Wallace, James. M. (2008). Critical Thinking: A Student’s Introduction. (3rd ed). New York: McGraw-Hill. Page 3 of 4

DS 3006 Critical Thinking Craver, Kathleen.

Critical thinking essays help college students develop analytical skills while crafting a sound argument. Unlike review and narrative essays, critical thinking essays require students to add their own thoughts, contemplate the meaning and value of a particular text and analyze important issues. Professors generally grade these essays based on writing skill and the ability to develop a coherent, thoughtful argument.

W. (1999). Using Internet primary sources to teach critical thinking skills in history. (ed). Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group. Huber, D. L. (2006). Leadership and Nursing Care Management. (3rd ed). Philadelphia: Elsevier. Regal, P. J. (1990). The anatomy of judgment. (ed). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press

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