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On bajra crop

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Short notes on the Area and Production of Bajra - Custom Essay Cheap

There has been gradual decline in the area of Bajra. The area has decreased from 114.69 lakh hectares in 1960-61 to 89 lakh hectares in 1999-00 at an average annual rate of 0.57 per cent. On the contrary despite wide fluctuations its production has increased at an average annual rate of 1.89 per cent during these years. This was due to more use of HYV seeds and higher input facilities.


Rajasthan ranks first in Indian states in area and fourth is production of Bajra.

Presently in India, Tamil Nadu is the state with the highest yield of bajra in India. Other states with good yield are Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Haryana. Rajasthan in India has the largest area under bajra cultivation. So, the majority of the produce is from Haryana, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan in the country of India.

The semi-arid and arid parts of the western Rajasthan are important for bajra cultivation. Jodhpur, Barmer, Nagaur, Bikaner, Churu, Ganganagar, Sawai Madhopur, Alwar, Kota, Tonk, Jhunjhunu, Pali and Jaisalmer are important districts where the crop occupies 30-60% of the total cropped area.
The contribution of this state to the production of bajra was only 15.46 per cent in 2002-03 while this state accounted for over 42 per cent of India’s land under bajra cultivation. The leading bajra producing districts are Barmer, Nagaur, Jalore, Jodhpur, Pali, Sikar, Churu, Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Bikaner, Alwar, Bharatpur, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jhunjhunu and Sawai Madhopur. Haryana produced 4.6 lakh tonnes (9.93 per cent of total for India) in 2002-03.

There has been wide fluctuation in the area and production of bajra in the state between 1983-84 and 2002-03 (area decreasing from 4996 lakh hectares to 31.98 lakh hectares and production declining from 24.51 lakh tones to 7.16 lakh tones). The state records the lowest per hectares yield of bajra in the country.
The main production comes from Mathura, Agra, Aligarh, Badaun, Moradabad, Etah, Etawah, Bulandshahar, Shahjahanpur, Mainpuri, Pratapgarh, Ghazipur, Farrukhabad, Allahabad and Kanpur. Earlier, Rajasthan was the largest producer of bajra, but the importance of this state as a producer of bajra has reduced drastically during the last decade or so. Rajasthan’s yield of 2.2 quintals/hectare is now the lowest of all the states of India.


Gujarat is the second important bajra produc­ing state accountingfor 12.4 per centofthe total area and 19.58 per cent of the total production in the country. Here bajra ocupies 16-30 per cent of the total cropped area of the district.

Nearly 80 per cent of India’s bajra comes from Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. Maharashtra is the largest producer of bajra in India. In 2002-03 this state produced 11.46 lakh tonnes which was 24.74 per cent of the total production of the country.

Kachchh, Mahesana, Kheda, Bhavnagar, Surendranagar, Amreli, Banaskantha, Sabarkantha, Jamnagar, Rajkot and Junagarh are important districts. The state has wit­nessed decline in the area (1437 to 9.40 lakh ha), [production (16.07 lakh tones to 9.07 tones) and [yield (1119 to 965 kg/ha) of bajra in the state be­tween 1983-84 and 2002-03.

Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh contributes 9.25 per cent of total area, and 19.39 percent of the total production of bajra in the country. The crop grows well in the western parts of the state with Agra, Badaun, Aligarh, Mathura, Moradabad, Bulandshahr, Mainpuri, Etah, Etawah, and Farrukhabad districts as important pro­ducers.

In India, Tamil Nadu is the highest producer of this staple crop and this is followed by Uttar Pradesh. It would be better to grow such crops in areas which are fertile. Also, many other components are possible to be included such as salinity and soil pH.

There has been decline in the area of bajra in the state between 1983-84 and 2002-03 (from 1040 lakh hectares to 7.03 lakh hectares). The production has marked slight decline (from 901 lakh tonnes in 1983-84 to 8.98 lakh tonnes in 2002- 03 decline being 0.33%) due to high per hectare yield of the crop (1277 kg/ha; second highest in the country).


Maharashtra occupies second place in respect of area (2036%) and frist place in respect of produc­tion of bajra (24.74%) in the country.

In Maharashtra, bajra is mainly grown in the central plateau having poor soils and dry climate. Nashik, Dhule, Satara, Pune, Sangli, Aurangabad, Solapur, Jalgaon and Ahmednagar are the main producing districts. Neighbouring Gujarat is the second important producer, where 9.07 lakh tonnes (19.58 per cent of India’s total) of bajra was produced in 2002-03.

The crop is grown in the hilly and dry areas of the central plateau on poor soils in the districts of Nasik, Dhule, Satara, Pune, Sangli, Aurangabad, Solapur, Jalgaon, Ahmadnagar. The per hectare yield is second lowest after Rajasthan (441 kg/ha).
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Nalgonda, Vishakhapatnam, Prakasam, Anantapur, Chittoor, Mahbubnagar, Guntur and Kurnool districts in Andhra Pradesh; Hissar, Mahendergarh, Gurgaon and Rohtak districts in Haryana; Bijapur, Gulbarga, Belgaum, Raichur, Chitradurga and Bellary districts in Karnataka; Tamil nadu and Madhya Pradesh are other minor producers of bajra in the country.

Botanical name for the largest type of millet plant in India is Pennisetum glaucum. Even though, it is indigenous to Africa, the plant is grown in the largest number in India. For poor people, this form of millet is supposedly the staple diet. Many places also have bajra as the food for cattle and some rural set ups also use this for thatching roofs. Mostly in the dry and arid climates, bajra crop is produced in large quantities. Since bajra is a form of millet, also known as pearl millet, it is suitable to be grown in semi arid climates, where hot and dry lands occur for short periods. Although the cultivation of pearl millet took popularity in Africa, it came into India in 1500 BC and since then, this crop has come up to become an important place to be cultivated in the country. Due to the adaptation of this millet crop in dry and arid conditions, it can be grown in India, where low fertility soil, dry climates, hot seasons and high salinity and low pH predominate. In contrast to other cereal crops like maize and wheat, bajra can easily grow in places where the former crops cannot grow.


Major portion of the bajra production is con­sumed locally and only a small quantity (about 3 lakh tonnes) enters the inter-state market. A small quantity of the produce is exported to the countries of east Africa, Middle East and Europe.

Coming from Africa, the bajra crop was introduced in India around 2000 BC. From the sites of excavation at Hallur in India, it is evident that bajra was cultivated around 1500 BC. Conditions of growth favored its growth in the country. Mostly in the north western part of the country, there is prolific growth of this millet plant. It is nowadays produced in such large quantities that it has become the 5th most important cereal in the country. India is also the largest producer of bajra or pearl millet in the world. Since the crop survives even in adverse climates with high temperatures, drought, low fertility of soil and even low rainfall. Due to these characteristics of its growth requirements, bajra has been successfully cultivated in areas where other cereal crops cannot survive.


Bajra, due to its low per hectare yield and less remunerative prices, is finding less popularity amongst farmers. Although a number of HYV (HB-1, BH-2, BJ-104, BK-560, Pusa-23, KMH-451, HHB-67, ICTP-8203, ICMS-7703, HC-4) of the crop have been developed the need is to popularise these vari­eties amongst farmers and promote bajra cultivation in dry farming areas.

Best part of the crop of pearl millet or bajra is that it grows in such climatic conditions, which doesn’t require any precise limits. It can also grow on soils, which are not highly fertile. High temperature and low rainfall regions are rightly suited for its growth. Where the annual rainfall is about 70-80 cms, this plant is possible to be grown. Since it is a drought tolerant crop, it can grow in dry farming situations. Temperature between 20 and 30 deg C is good for its growth. Light rainfall, followed by bright sunlight helps in the growth of bajra plants and therefore post monsoon season is the best time for its harvesting and development. It is therefore included under the category of kharif crops, as it grows well in monsoon seasons in most parts of India and is perfect to be harvested in winters. So, in India, the best season for its growth is from May till September, while it is harvested during October and November. It can be grown alone or as a mixed crop with cotton, ragi and jowar.

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In India, the total area over which bajra is grown is around 11.34 million hectares, from where the total amount of the cereal produced is about 5.5 million tons. Many hybrid and composite varieties of bajra are found in India these days, which are small in height and grow very quickly and mature faster than the local varieties, which are longer and mature quite late.

Big thanks! - Marry Clements

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