Main page

Menu:
And research paper difference

Dare to be different

Difference between college and university

Difference between highschool and college

Difference between iphone and samsung

Difference between primary and secondary sources

Difference between two countries

Difference between vietnam and america

Difference checker

Different cultures

Making a difference in the world

download, 53 kb.

The Difference Between Primary and Secondary Sources of Data

Primary data is data, which is collected by the researcher themselves.
This kind of data is new, original research information.

Primary sources enable the researcher to get as close as possible to what actually happened and is hands on.
A primary source reflects the individual viewpoint of a participant or observer.
Primary sources means that it is original article or book created by an individual or sometimes a group of people. What types of primary sources are available? It might be surprising to know that a novel is a primary source. Other types of primary sources are paintings created by the artist. If it were a photocopy of the painting, then it would be a secondary source. Some other primary sources are letters, films, short stories, plays, poems, photographs, court cases, journal articles, newspaper events, and speeches. For instance, a speech by President Bush would be a primary source.

Primary sources are first-hand information from a person who witnessed or participated in an event. Examples of primary data are:

* Interviews

* Questionnaires

*Observations

Secondary research is using information that has already been produced by other people.
Primary Sources include historical documents, literary works (poems, novels, short stories, plays, etc.), eyewitness accounts, diaries, field reports, letters and other examples of correspondence between people, like emails, and lab studies. Others examples of Primary Sources are the following: any original research is done through interviews, experiments, and observations, as well as surveys. Primary Sources are useful because they offer subjects for firsthand study.

A secondary source is used by a person usually not present at the event and relying on primary source documents for information. Secondary sources usually analyse and interpret. Finding out about research that already exits will help form new research.
When it comes to finding sources for a written assignment, it is crucial the student in higher education has the ability to differentiate between various sources and can evaluate the credibility of these sources, while understanding how sources can enhance their overall understanding of a subject or topic. In most cases, a student’s research will likely lead them to both Primary and Secondary Sources.



Examples of secondary data:

Internet

Books/ Magazines

Newspapers

Office statistics

The government statistics service

The office of national statistics

Centre for applied social surveys

The distinctions between primary and secondary sources can be ambiguous.
For example, if a student reads Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Scarlet Letter (a Primary Source) for a better understanding of Puritan history and beliefs, that student would be better inclined to discern a fallible, valueless Secondary Source; if that student has not read the novel, though, they may have been convinced that same Secondary Source was indeed a credible one - therefore, earning them a lower grade on the assignment for using a Secondary Source that does not treat the subject matter accurately and respectfully; it would exemplify the use of an insignificant Secondary Source. In short, commentaries and interpretations about people, events, and works of art, statistics, or scientific data are Secondary Sources - ones that should be evaluated on the basis of how well they describe and interpret a Primary Source.

An individual document may be a primary source in one context and a secondary source in another. Time is a defining element.
For example, a recent newspaper article is not usually a primary source; but a newspaper article from the 1860's may be a primary source for civil war research.
It is important to remember that whether or not a source is primary or secondary depends on who created it and when it was created, not the form of the source. For example, a magazine article can be a primary source if it is written by a person who has direct knowledge of the situation under study. It can also be a secondary source if it is an analysis of what someone else has found.



Explain the concept of validity

Validity is how truthful something is and whether a piece of research has the ability to test or research what it set out to measure. The word validity mainly refers to the data collection and whether it is true.
Even though secondary sources are often acceptable, primary sources are often better than secondary sources, and there are times when primary sources must be used. While most of the sources that are found during research are secondary sources, it is often possible to also track down the primary source. To do this, look at the references, works cited, bibliography, or internet links (for an internet source) provided in a secondary source. These will often lead you to the primary source itself; after all, these writers have to document their sources just as you have to.

If a questionnaire, which was aimed at young girls was carried out the validity would look at the results and think how truthful they were. The questionnaire might not have been answered by who it was aimed at so would not be truthful.
These are contemporary accounts of an event, written by someone who experienced or witnessed the event in question. These original documents (i.e., they are not about another document or account) are often diaries, letters, memoirs, journals, speeches, manuscripts, interviews and other such unpublished works. They may also include published pieces such as newspaper or magazine articles (as long as they are written soon after the fact and not as historical accounts), photographs, audio or video recordings, research reports in the natural or social sciences, or original literary or theatrical works.

So maybe the researcher would need to chose a method that you know who is answering it (e.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"The Difference Between Primary and Secondary Sources of Data." 123HelpMe.com. 12 Sep 2017
.
Title Length Color Rating Essay on Data Input and Output Considerations - Introduction This paper will take a closer look at data input and also data output considerations. There are many different choices when it comes to data input/output options.
This is a continuation of 'top 10 essay writing mistakes' written by our expert writers. Avoiding these pitfalls will help you write a perfect essay!

While it is good to have many choices, there are usually some considerations that are required to make the best possible decision. The second section of this paper will concentrate on the difference between primary and secondary storage.
In conducting research, you can normally find both primary and secondary sources that can be used. It is important for students to recognise the difference between a primary and a secondary source and know how to use them appropriately.

Lastly, the different roles of computer components and their impact on overall computer speed will be explored.... [tags: Data Technology Computer] 1807 words
(52 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Primary vs. Secondary Research Essay - Primary vs. Secondary Research When conducting research, when is it conducive to use primary research over secondary research and vice versa.
When performing research, most writers will come across a variety of information from a variety of different places. All of these sources can be classified as either primary or secondary sources.

Both research techniques are viable and beneficial. They each have purpose and can be used as a marketing research template when conducting research. Both techniques are equipped with tools that can be used to guide a researcher through the research process.
Through the analysis of many primary sources and the generalisations of the writers, secondary sources can help readers understand the topic more clearly. However, secondary sources are not created by people who have direct experience of the situation under study. Therefore, there can be inaccuracies and some information might be too general or to narrow. It is also important to remember that bias and personal opinion is often present in secondary sources as well. Not all researchers are objective. Students need to be careful when using secondary sources and always confirm the information by checking multiple reliable sources.

If these tools are properly adhered to, the research process can be seamless and quite effective. Moreover, market research can assist a researcher in making accurate decisions and improve the chance of success.
Since most student research papers will include a combination of Primary and Secondary Sources, it is very important to understand the implications of each. A familiarity with the Primary Sources of a topic will allow the student to assess the accuracy and value of a Secondary Source.

... [tags: Marketing]
:: 3 Works Cited 1096 words
(31 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Early Intervention and Juvenile Delinquency Prevention: Evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study - Early Intervention and Juvenile Delinquency Prevention: Evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS) (Mann, E. A., & Reynolds, A. J., 2006). The Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS) was a quasi-experimental design study which investigated the role of Child-Parent Center (CPC), early education intervention (independent variable) and child, family, peer and school-level predictors on court-reported juvenile delinquency (dependent variable).
Determining if a work is considered a primary or secondary source often depends on the topic and the purpose of the writer: if a person is analyzing a poem - a Primary Source - a critic’s article interpreting the poem is a Secondary Source. But if the student or scholar is investigating that critic’s article (the interpretation of the poem), that article could be considered a Primary Source for the student’s own study and interpretation.

The predictor variables used have been supported through extensive research and included: early antisocial behavior, individual-level attributes of the child family attributes, and social characteristics of both the child and the family (Lipsey & Derzon,.. [tags: Cost Benefit Analysis, Secondary Data] :: 9 Works Cited 2628 words
(7.5 pages)
Research Papers [preview] The Difference in Leadership Essay - The Difference in Leadership Introduction ============ Leadership is an influence process.
Yes, we can develop a questionnaire. It qualifies as a research paper type of assignment on our order placement list.

It might be thought of as the ability to motivate others into following and understanding the role they play in an organisation, as well as what the overall strategy of the business is, with the interest of achieving organisational goals.
We can certainly adhere to any guidelines sent to us; we have a vast experience in writing papers on almost every academic topic out there. After an order is placed, the guidelines and example can be uploaded for the writer to look at, as well as any other material you wish to provide.

If this is done correctly then high levels of motivation, empowerment, commitment and performance should result. It is equally important for a leader to be trustworthy, Viscount Slim describes leadership as being : “The quality which makes people trust you”.
Our system is completely automated and adjusted to the degree of maximum user convenience. All you have to do is give us your assignment requirements and pay at the time of placing the order. Once we are notified of your payment we start to work on your paper immediately. Each project is assigned a unique identification number which gives you the possibility to track your order online. It also allows you to log into your personalized control panel and communicate with the writer who"s doing the job for you. Once the paper is completed it is delivered to your email.
I have written my assignment, but before I hand it in, would you be able to proof read and tell me if I have done it correctly.

... [tags: Papers Leading Skills Essays Papers Motivation]
:: 10 Works Cited 3447 words
(98 pages) Term Papers [preview] Essay on Implementing a Data Warehouse in a Kar Dealer Network - Data warehouse architecture Goldfarelli & Rizzi (2009) describe two classifications of a data warehouse architecture. The first classification describes the physical separation of the data warehouse's architectural layers. The second classification is based on the methods devised by Inmon and Kimball.
Our company currently employs over 7500 professional writers ranging from Bachelor's to PhD degrees in various fields, ranging from SEO writing, article writing, to professional ghost-writing. They are assigned to the project based on the type of your order and the academic level of your paper.

Inmon advocates the use of hub-and-spoke architecture, while Kimball prefers an architecture based on the data mart bus (Ariyachandra & Watson, 2006). The advantage of the hub-and-spoke approach is data integration versus the ease of development and a lower cost of the federated approach (Hwang & Cappel, 2002).
You can't directly cite Wikipedia in your scholarly paper, however you can still successfully make references to the primary sources it contains!

... [tags: hub-and-spoke, top-down, warehouse]
:: 16 Works Cited 1030 words
(29 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Use of Secondary Sources in Bram Stoker's "Dracula" Essay - Bram Stoker uses secondary sources all throughout his novel in order to enhance the novel. He inserts a number of journal entries, newspaper articles, etc. instead of using a narrative point of view. By doing this, he has helped the reader understand more about what is going on, almost as if they are getting a behind-the-scenes view on the story, emotionally and physically.
University level, Bachelor's refers to the academic level to be written. If you are an undergraduate studying at the university, then that is what you should select. The vast majority of our papers do receive a 2:1 or better. We suggest you selecting the level of difficulty in accordance with your expectations.

If Stoker had only used a narrative point of view, the reader wouldn’t know the character’s thoughts, emotions, or anything they were feeling at that moment.... [tags: Bram Stoker, secondary sources, Dracula] 626 words
(18 pages) Better Essays [preview] Secondary Analysis of Qualitative Data Essay - This essay aims to examine the practice of secondary analysis on qualitative data in terms of barriers to overcome and advantages of its practice. Over the last decades, archives of qualitative data have become widely accessible to research-es and there has been a smaller revolution in the practice of secondary analysis on such data.
When evaluating the quality of the information you are using, it is useful to identify if you are using a Primary, Secondary, or Tertiary source. By doing so, you will be able recognize if the author is reporting on his/her own first hand experiences, or relying on the views of others.

(Seale, 2004) There are both practical and methodological ad-vantages for researchers to use data that has been collected by others in order to pursue new research.... [tags: reuse of qualitative data]
:: 16 Works Cited 2331 words
(67 pages) Research Papers [preview] Essay on Regulation Data Protection and Personal Data Privacy - CONTENTS PAGE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY iv CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION 1 Background 1 Statement of Purpose 1 Scope 2 Limitations 2 Methods of Research 2 CHAPTER 2 - FINDINGS 3…………………………………………………………3 Current Regulations 3 Current Expectations from customers 6 Reason Additional Regulations should be added 8 Future Potential 9 CHAPTER 3 - CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 11 Conclusions 11 Recommendations 12 WORKS CITED 13 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report will describe the history of government regulations and FTC.... [tags: Data Privacy]
:: 10 Works Cited 2928 words
(84 pages) Research Papers [preview] Crime Data Sources in the United States Essay examples - Crime Data Sources in the United States: The collection of crime data in the United States is carried out through different approaches including Uniform Crime Reports and the National Incident-Based Reporting System, which also act as the two primary sources of crime data for crime reporting. The data obtained from these sources are used for research and documentation of crime status at the county, state, and national levels.
Writing a custom term paper, research paper, or essay, students often do not know the difference between primary and secondary sources. This can lead to problems in writing research papers that require primary sources. The best way to meet the requirements of an essay or research paper is to know what type of sources are needed, which means knowing the difference between primary and secondary sources.

Notably, the National Incident-Based Reporting System emerged as an advancement of the conventional summary of Uniform Crime Reports that were used to track crime in the country.... [tags: victim, police, offenses] 3334 words
(95 pages) Research Papers [preview] Essay on The Difference between Discs and Disks - ... Literature Review The below facts are already been studied and researched many a times.
In simple terms primary sources come firsthand from the source or person. Diaries would be a primary source because it is written directly by the individual writing in the diary. Interviews are great primary sources because the individual talks about the topic directly from what he/she knows about the topic. Primary sources are usually firsthand information about something such as diaries, court records, interviews, research studies about experiments, and information that has been stated but not interpreted by others.

Here we give just a highlight of the work already done on the topic through experiments and manufacturing processes. Disk storage is a storage mechanism through which data is written by various changes to the layers of one or more rotating disks.
Sometimes a source can be a primary source in one journal article and a secondary source in another journal article. It depends upon the relationship the writer has in the journal article. If he has been an active part of the research and he custom-writes about it then this is a primary source. If the writer writes about research done by others then this writing will be a secondary source.

The types of disks are categorised on the basis of: • The medium they use e.g electronic, magnetic, optical, or mechanical media. • The type of access they use e.g sequential, random, direct associative etc.... [tags: data recording technology] 1982 words
(57 pages) Research Papers [preview]

Related Searches


The validity would also take into account that if the answers were not reliable it could be because the respondents did not understand the question, so the questions would need to be more clear. The validity would also look at whether the research methods actually measured what they claimed.
The best way to research is to use both primary and secondary sources together. This will help you to gain a clearer and more in-depth understanding of what you are studying.

If a piece of research is not reliable then it is unlikely to be valid.

Explain the concept of reliability:

Reliability in research terms is whether the results in a research method are trustworthy and dependable.
Secondary Sources include journal articles, books, encyclopedias, dictionaries, reviews, newspaper articles, specific essays, etc. Most research papers are based on secondary sources as they build on the research or studies others have done.

If the same piece of research were carried out again the same results would be reproduced again who ever was doing the research. In doing a piece of research reliable data collection methods need to be used to collect the information.
Our assignments are completely free of plagiarism. We do not resell our work. We provide complete and total confidentiality to the extent that even your writer does not know your identity.


Some methods of data collection are seen as more reliable than others.
For example on a questionnaire people will often lie or not tell the truth (eg. ticking the box to say how much you earn). Whereas in an interview face-to-face people will tell the truth a lot more and say exactly how they feel, so the results will be more valid.
Secondary Source: A secondary source is a document that is written about the primary source. These are often documents that report, analyze, discuss, or interpret primary sources.

Often when carrying out research, working with others will often help your work to become more valid and reliable. Using unreliable data collection can lead to validity problems with the data; this means that the data would be inaccurate.
Sure, you can send your assignment instructions to support@privatewriting.com and our staff will estimate the cost of the assignment for you. It would really help if you also let us know your academic level, and your deadline.



Method: Questionnaire Survey

Describe this method

Questionnaires are simply lists of pre-written questions and sometimes also include scales. Which can either sent to the respondents home which often has a low response rate as people see no reason to fill them in, or can be given to the person directly to be filled in there or then e.g. on the streets.

A researcher would often uses a variety of questions so that they can try and get the best response from people in the questions used.
Secondary sources are sources that are written about primary sources. Secondary sources analyze, interpret, and discuss information about the primary source. If a magazine writer wrote about the speech President Bush gave on September 11th, it would be a secondary source. The information is not original, but it is an analysis of the speech.

When writing questionnaires using more open questions (say how you really feel answers) produces qualitative data. Using closed questions (fixed response answers) produce quantitative data.

Questionnaires maybe postal which has a low response rate self administered where the person fills them in themselves or in the form of a interview where the researcher reads out the questions

Questionnaires are used to reaching a large number of people because the forms can just be handed out and are not as time consuming or expensive as interviews would be. Although cannot be as accurate because people do not have the chance to express themselves like they would in a interview so may just end up ticking a box that they don't agree with because there are no other options.
We generally allow our most experienced writers to pick-up orders themselves, as long as they have the relevant qualifications. When a new order comes in, we circulate a notice to all writers in that field, and someone who is available and interested in your topic will chose to work on your project. Our junior or less experienced writers require administrators' approval before they can start on the job. Writers have competitive incentives to work towards and are well looked after, which means that we attract and retain the very best writers in this industry.

Here is a selection of questions that could be used in a questionnaire.

List: Where there is a list of answers to a question and the respondent can just tick the boxes that apply to them the most.

E.g. Which sorts of houses have you live in the past? (Tick as many as needed)

Detached Semi-detached Terrace Bungalow Flat Apartment Other

Category: Where the respondent can only choose one of the set listed answers.
Secondary Sources include scholarly books and articles, reviews, biographies, textbooks - as well as other works that interpret and/orss Primary Sources. A Secondary Source helps a student understand and evaluate primary source material.



E.g. How long have you lived in your current house for?

Under 1 year 1-5 years 6-10 years 11-20 years 21-30 years 31 years or more

Ranking: The respondent can rank things or order of what they like the best or least.
The function of these is to interpret primary sources, and so can be described as at least one step removed from the event or phenomenon under review. Secondary source materials, then, interpret, assign value to, conjecture upon, and draw conclusions about the events reported in primary sources. These are usually in the form of published works such as journal articles or books, but may include radio or television documentaries, or conference proceedings.



E.g. Indicate your preference for what you look for in as good home.
(1very important and 4 least important)

Good neighbours Big garden Close to the shops Four or more bedrooms

Attitude scales: this is where the respondent is allowed to indicate to what they agree with and what they disagree with or how much they like or dislike something.

E.g. "All houses must have a garage". How much do you agree or disagree with this statement.
Here is an article on the writing process. In the process of writing an essay, it is most advised to determine a stance or design a thesis statement, early to avoid doing pointless, time-consuming work. To lean more read the article.



Agree Strongly Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly
Disagree

Advantages of questionnaires

Disadvantages of questionnaire

Cheap and quick to conduct compared to other methods. Does not take so long because

Fixed response questions mean that answers can be quickly and accurately analysed on the computer.
The usual method of payment is by credit card, online, but you can also use PayPal. Payment is required at the time you place your order. We are a PCI-compliant website, all sensitive information is transmitted via 256-bit AES-encrypted SSL channel, and your credit card data is not stored in our database. However, if you feel hesitant using your credit card online, please feel free to place your order over the phone. To do this, you first need to visit our order page, enter assignment criteria, click "Proceed to Payment", and call us when on the payment page. We will quickly identify your order and activate it, after the payment has been processed.



Every question is the same so it is easy to see patters and make comparisons between different groups of people such as their age or between what jobs they have.

If the sampling is successful you can sometimes make general statements about the whole population rather than about the group of people who took part in the questionnaire.
Primary sources are commonly used when studying history as they are raw and original and they are from the points of view of people who have direct experience of the past. However, as they are the direct and firsthand sources, sometimes written by a particular person, it is possible that primary sources contain the biases, prejudices, concerns, worries or personal opinions of the authors, and this information will need to be analysed carefully before being referred to in your essay or thesis.



No interviewer bias is involved because there is no interviewer present. The only person there could be there would be the person handing out the questionnaire.

Analysing the results on a large scale might be very time consuming and could be out of date when the results are ready.
Other types of secondary sources are reference materials, books, and CD Rom, magazines, videotapes, and television shows. Most secondary sources analyze the material or restate the works of others. Many secondary sources are used to argue someone's thesis or main points about a topic. For instance, a secondary source would use debates between the presidential candidates in their magazine article and show how one president feels about a topic the writer is discussing.



Statistics giveno indication of how the person feels and could not be accurate because it could not be how the person truly feels.

The statistics give no individual meaning or interpretation.

People may not understand the question or think it has I different meaning and interpret it in totally different ways.
A secondary source, in contrast to a primary source, is a sources that generalises, analyses, interprets, synthesises, evaluates, cites, comments on or discusses the original sources or situation under study.

This makes comparison of answers difficult if groups have common interpretation.

Lying is also a danger. The only way to check is to put in is difficult to check weather they are or not.

If the response rate is low or the sampling is less random, the overall findings will be less reliable.

Method : In-depth interviews

Describe this method:

Interviews are very similar to questionnaires as they are organised around a series of questions that the interviewee can respond.
Although interviews are longer winded than questionnaires. They are also a lot more personal than questionnaires and are able to collect more detailed information.
In simple terms, a secondary source writes or talks about something that is a primary source. For instance, if a person were to write about a painting hanging in the art gallery, this would be a secondary source discussing the original art.

Interviews are usually take place face-to-face and one-to-one which enables the interviewer to gain information on a more sensitive subject.

Interviews need to be carried out really carefully by the interviewer and require good communication skills.
Some examples of primary sources are e-mails and letters. They are directly written about one person. If this letter was written during World War II and analyzed by another person then it would be a secondary source. Debates, community meetings, surveys, and observations are some different primary sources.

They are much harder work than questionnaires, as they can be very time consuming.

Interviews can be open-ended, structured or semi-structured.

Structured: Questions asked require as certain answer.

Open-ended: Don't have a format, so the interviewee can express their feelings.
Primary Sources are directly taken from an individual or group of individuals, while secondary sources take information from an individual or group and analyzes the topic. Remembering this information helps in deciding whether it is a primary or secondary source.



Semi-structured: Are half way in-between both structured and open ended. During an interview it is best to use a bit of both to get a variety.

Advantages of in-depth interviews

Disadvantages of in-depth interviews

Good interaction can often develop between the interviewer and interviewee; this means that honest and trustworthy answers are produced.
We provide one of the best writing services available. We have 100% customer satisfaction guarantee which means that customer satisfaction is our top priority.

This is really important when the subject is considered sensitive or personal.

In interviews you are able to understand how they really feel and can speak for themselves. Also interviews are able to get closer to their experiences.

The information is not already known by the questions set, this means the interviewer can focus on specific information.

The reason people feel how they do can be explored rather than just collecting specific information.

A tape recorder can because, which means that the information can be referred back to when analysing the data.

The results depend on how skilful the interviewer is.

The interviewer can be very bias the three main problems are that the interviewer can often give clues like frowning that could influence them. The interviewer could follow up information they believe is more relevant. Or if there was more than one interviewer than it could mean that there was more than one bias.

Interviews are very time consuming and expensive so not as many can take place.

Each interview is different so it means producing statistics or general results can be difficult.

The sample can be bias if someone refused to be interviewed.

People can often change their mind on a topic once the interview has started and they may change their behaviour.

Sometimes people ask questions back. the interviewer must not answer the questions as it can change peoples minds or opinions on a subject.

Method : Direct observation

Describe this method

Direct observation is when you study what people do and how they behave by watching them in their everyday life.
Primary Source: A primary source is an original study, document, object, or eyewitness account. In other words, this is the source where any given information first appeared. For instance, if a scientific study is performed, the primary source is the initial report that is prepared by the scientist(s) who performed the research.

The observer would observe from a distance and will not become involved in what the group is doing. As with other techniques the data collected has to be recorded in a certain way so that the relevant information is collected, the main way of collecting information is to take notes.

In direct observation the subjects (eg. children) would go about their normal life (e.g. in a playgroup) whilst being observed.
Observing how people live and behave in their natural settings can give the researcher a lot of information about the subject's life and why they are who they are. Direct observation is the best way to look at the interactions people have especially with children as interviews or questionnaires would not work.

There are two main types of observation direct and participant. Direct observation is also known as overt which means that it is obvious and the observation is not hidden as every one knows that they are there watching, and identifies the reason why they are watching. The other observational method is covert linked to participant observation it is where the researchers identity and purpose remain a secret.

Both quantitative and qualitative data can be collected from observation:

. Qualitative data covers the type of research, which aims to get personal views and opinions across. It looks into things in-depth and the quality ism more important than the quaintly. Interviews and observations are considered as qualitative this is because the information collected is not statistical.

Quantitative data however looks at how many people think the same about something. Quantitative data is all to do with numbers and statistics. This type of data is designed to collect al lot of it and then analyse so that conclusions can be drawn. Research methods, which are classed as quantitative, include questionnaires.

Advantages of Direct observation

Disadvantages of Direct observation

The observers can see what the people actually do rather than being told in a questionnaire or an interview.

The subjects are studied in their natural environment so should act themselves more.

The observer is able to detect behaviour that the subjects are unaware of doing, so would not mention it as they believed it as normal.

In direct observation you are able to look at group behaviour and hoe they interact with each other.

This could be the only method of finding out information about young children as they could not fill in questionnaires or take part in an interview.

The observer may miss important information while they are note taking about other information.

Negative observations about what is happening can lead to ethnical problems.

If the observer cannot control himself or herself over the sample being observed this can limit broader application of research in the future.

Inferences drawn from observed behaviour can lead to misunderstandings and there fore is a poor way to look at values and believes.

The reliability of observational data collection methods is relatively low because observations are often personal and non-repeatable.

Method: Participant observation

Describe this method

In participant observation the researcher would enter a group or situation who they were going to study, and try to get to know the group of people or the situation from their point of view and join in with what they do.

During participant observation the researcher would try to understand the motives and meanings of the person they were studying, they are trying to gain a deeper understanding of the persons life, their beliefs, activities of the group and where and how they live. It is a good way to find new information which may not have been found doing questionnaires or interviews.

During participant observation the researcher may become to attached to the people that they are studying and the data could become invalid as the researcher could be seeing things in a different point of view, so using interviews or questionnaires along side this research method is advised. This research method is very time consuming as to collect valid information, as the group would need to be studied for a long time.

This research method is often used to find out hidden information on a hostile group like the police to find out hidden data. There is a risk of doing this because the group would not appreciate someone who they think was there friend and who they trusted going and getting into trouble for a piece of research.

Advantages of Participant observation

Disadvantages of Participant observation

Observations in the group's natural settings can produce very high valid data, because they are being themselves.

The data collected can be very useful and may give access to data that could have been hidden away otherwise.

The data can be observed over a long period of time so can be more accurate and reliable.

Participant observation may be the only way of accessing information on more hostile groups that would not normally let you observe them.

During the research the researchers can decide what is important and what is not as it unfolds, and so do not have to decide what they are looking for at the beginning of the study

Researchers may not help but start to get involved in the group, and could influence them in what they do.

Participant observers may never really understand the group or their setting so may not be able to appreciate the meanings they have.

Studying groups on a small scale doesn't mean it can be a representation of any other social groups because everyone is different.

Observations can sometimes have ethical problems if say there was no consent obtained when the observation was being carried out.

The reliability of observational data collection methods is low because observations are often too personal and non-repeatable..
download, 53 kb.
    Sources:
  • 1. www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=123040
  • 9.1%
  • 2. custompapers.com/writing-tutorial/primary-secondary-sources/
  • 4.7%
  • 3. guides.library.ucsc.edu/primarysecondary
  • 1.4%
  • 4. blog.eliteediting.com.au/what-is-the-difference-between-a-primary-and-secondary-source/
  • 6.6%
  • 5. www.privatewriting.com/difference-between-primary-and-secondary-sources
  • 7.1%
  • 6. www.aims.edu/student/online-writing-lab/sources/primary-vs-secondary
  • 5.5%
  • 7. libguides.bvswlmc.com/c.php?g=140650&p=921852
  • 6.6%
© 2018