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Cement industry is a huge industry having its presence worldwide. The major players occupying the largest market share are China, India and USA. There respective market shares with regard to production capacity 2010 are 54%, 7% and 2% respectively.
At first glance, CSA-belite cements could be manufactured in the UK, as there is no technical process or supply issues to be dealt with in regards of their production. However, much applied research and many pilot studies would be
needed to verify that local materials and existing plant could produce consistent high quality product before manufacturers in the UK would take it on.
Other cement producers and exporters include Turkey, Brazil, Japan, Iran, Spain, Vietnam having 2% market share and Pakistan, Thailand, Germany, Mexico, Italy, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Korea, Egypt, Russia, with 1% market share.
Water, unsurprisingly, is the number one most consumed substance in the world. Concrete, surprisingly, is the second most consumed substance in the world. Concrete is created by mixing cement, water and aggregate. Cement is the vital binding component in the concrete production
process. This combination is the most abundantly manufactured material in the world and is one the most universally used
construction materials. The ancient Babylonians
and Egyptians (enviroliteracy, 2013) were the first to discover and incorporate the use of cement. Cement and concrete can be found is almost every, past and present, structure currently known to man. So much so that the demand for concrete is expected
to double in the next 30 years. All these points highlight the past, present and future popularity and demand
for cement. However, the environmental impacts imposed by both the production and use of cement are catastrophic. Cement is produced by combining limestone or chalk with clay in a kiln and then heating this mixture up to approximately 1450??. This produces nodules of
clinker which are then ground up in a ball mill (concrete.org, 2013). This entire production process is highly energy intensive and emits copious amounts of carbon dioxide. These are but a few of the catastrophic environmental impacts
that will be discussed in this
paper. Manners in which to reduce these impacts will also be addressed.
Following display depicts the life cycle of cement industry in international market and in Pakistani market.
"International Cement Industry Life Cycle"
"Pakistan Cement Industry Life Cycle"
Generally cement is used for construction purposes and is divided into two broad categories based on its properties, mainly Hydraulic and non-Hydraulic. Although the use of all variety of cement has changed over recent years and only certain forms are still used, but despite that a wide variety of cement can be created by blending different proportions of gypsum, clinker and other materials together.
So at first glance magnesium oxide-based cements look like a better solution than continuing with Portland cement manufacturing in the UK but in practice manufacture is dependent on the availability of the basic raw material and its proximity to a production facility
but regrettably the raw material found in abundance in mainland Australia and Tasmania
, is very rare in the UK where there are no significant deposits in UK suitable.
Following are the variety of cement available in the international market: Portland cement, Portland cement blend, Portland blast furnace cement, Portland Fly ash cement, Portland Pozzolan Cement, Portland Silica Fume Cement, Masonry Cement, Expansion Cement, White Blended Cement, Colored Cement, very finely ground cement, Pozzolan-line Cement, Slag-lime Cement, Super sulfated cements, Calcium aluminate cements, Calcium sulfoaluminate cements, Natural Cements, Geopolymer cements and Sulphate resistance cement.
India is producing different varieties of cement like Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement (PBFS), Oil Well Cement, White Cement, etc.
Cement industry in Pakistan is a very important component of Pakistan's Industrial sector. It plays a pivotal role in its socio-economic development. Due to the current boom in industrial and commercial construction in Pakistan, the Cement industry is operating at the maximum output.
This report details the way in which the cement industry currently produces cement and outlines the reasons why it needs to be changed in order for it to have a lower less damaging effect on the environment as possible.
Despite the large variety of cement availability in the international market, Pakistan has been producing only four types of cements namely Ordinary Portland cement, Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement, Sulphate Resistance Cement and White Cement.
The first stage in manufacturing cement is to obtain the raw materials from a quarry; the raw materials are then crushed usually 2 or 3 times to approx 3” or less and then fed into a kiln in a dry state. The raw materials are then heated up to approx 2700 degrees F in large steel rotary cylinder, which is lined with a special heat resistant brick. Kilns are usually at least 12 feet in diameter and mounted on a slight incline. The finely ground raw material is then fed into the higher end of the kiln and at the lower end you have a roaring flame being applied and controlled very
precisely, usually produced by coal, oil or gas with a controlled amount of forced draft.
Following table gives a summarized description of types of cement produced globally and in Pakistan.
Types of Cement
Produced in Pakistan
Portland cement blend
Portland blast furnace cement
Portland Fly ash cement
Portland Pozzolan Cement
Portland Silica Fume Cement
White Blended Cement
very finely ground cement
Super sulfated cement
Calcium aluminate cement
Calcium sulfoaluminate cement
Sulphate resistance Cement
Pakistani Cement industry is divided into two large regions based on the geographic, namely Northern and Southern region. Overall, the industry comprises of 29 cement producing firms.
However, after March, 1989 due to changes in the policy, cement industry made rapid strides both in capacity/production and process technology. At present there are 122 large cement plants with an installed capacity of 112-95 million tonnes per annum and more than 300 mini cement plants with a combined estimated capacity of nine million tonnes per annum. The production during
1999-2000 was 100-72 million tonnes (provisional). The cement industry achieved a growth rate of
15 per cent in 1999-2000.
19 units are part of the Northern region and 10 units are part of Southern. The average production capacity of the industry is 44.09 million tons. The northern region is responsible for 80% of the production capacity i.e 35.18 million tons while the southern region is responsible for the remaining 20% i.e 8.89 million tons. Cement domestic market demand is of 19 million tons.
The cement industry has kept pace with technological advancement and modernization. Export of cement was 3-14 million tonnes (provisional) in 1999- 2000. Improvement in the quality of Indian Cement has found its ready market in a number of countries named earlier.
Out of the 29 firms 6 occupy the major market share of the industry. Not all firms manufacture the four types of cement available in the domestic market. Following is the domestic market share distribution analysis.
As the process flow continues through the kiln gas elements are burned off and the remaining elements form a new substance called a “clinker” these are in the form of small marble type shapes.
Following are the Salient features of the Pakistani Cement Industry:
Oligopolistic Competition exists in the Pakistani cement industry, but cartel formations are also witnessed.
In industry, Cement prices are similar, no obvious rather little product differentiation.
Cement manufacturing is one of the most advanced industries in India. A decade back, the country was having deficient production of cement and had to resort to import it from different countries in order to meet country's demand of cement.
Barriers to entry are less.
Industry is growing thus high growth chances and high investment opportunity.
Both demand and supply forces are strong.
APCMA: All Pakistan Cement Manufacturing Association established in 1992 is the regulatory body of cement manufactures in Pakistan.
The real beginning of this industry came up in 1913, when three units were set up at ICatni (Madhya Pradesh) in 1915, Lekheri (Tamil Nadu) in 1916 and Porbander (Gujarat) in 1913. The First World War gave incentive to the industry and a few more factories were set up
at Japla (Bihar), Dwarka (Gujarat) and Banmore (Madhya Pradesh). In 1934, ten out of eleven cement manufacturing companies merged together and formed one Associated Cement Company (A.C.C.).
Pakistani cement industry accounts for being the 5th largest exporter of the world.
Cement exports are ranked 10th in the Pakistan export components list.
Export markets of Pakistan cement industry include Afghanistan, India, African countries, Middle Eastern counties and Iraq.
India has developed some export trade in cement. At times it exports cement and cement products to the countries like Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Kuwait, Bangladesh, Mynmar, Sri Lanka, E. African countries and South East Asian Countries.
Per Capita consumption of cement in Pakistan has increased considerably over the recent years. It has increased two folds from 75kg in yr 2003 to 145kg in yr 2011. Overall world average consumption is 270kg.
Cement is the second most consumed substance in the world, and is second only to water consumption. A brief history of Portland cement sees that it was invented and produced in the UK in 1824 by an English bricklayer named Joseph Aspdin. He found that by Burning limestone and clay together at incredible heat (approx than 2700 degrees Fahrenheit) it made the two minerals fuse together. Once this newly created material was cool enough it was then ground down into a fine ash, this newly created substance could then be mixed with water and the resulting substance that when allowed to set, would be as hard as the Portland stone that gave it its name.
Majors sectors of Pakistan which demand cement usage include Housing/building sector having 40% demand, Private building construction sector, Government development projects like dams, roads etc.
Factors having an significant effect on the local demand of cement in Pakistan include Increase in population growth, urbanization, decrease in interest rate, political and economical stability and seasonal variations.
One such activity is the production of cement which is one of the main contributors to the greenhouse effect due to the high amount of Co2 being produced during manufacturing. The traditional Portland cement based concrete is the UK’s
backbone of the built environment and production of this cement is needed to keep up with the rapid population growth
which in turn then lead’s to an increase in production of cement. This is due partly to an increase in the housing requirements of the public and associated buildings that are
required by the general public to
sustain a comfortable life style.
Pakistan Cement industry has seen experienced considerable growth since last decade due to increase no of new development projects both is public and in private sector. Growth rate was 2.9% from1990-2001 and is 20% since 2003-2010.
Industry hasn't reached economics of scale.
There are a number of developing technologies coming through at the moment and these are produced using various different materials for use in the building industry. One of these new product’s is called Ceramicrete which is a lighter foam-based concrete which
according to there makers is twice as strong as the concrete’s we currently use so builders use less of it hence the better it is for the environment! The only negatives known about this new product is that it is more expensive than traditional concrete
and it needs to be subjected to further testing to establish it’s long-term structural suitability and environmental performance before it can be promoted on a wider scale.
Current Senario And Future Outlook: For the past four years or so Pakistan cement industry has experienced stagnant sales resulting in financial losses but it soon bounced back recently with earning net profit of Rs 4.300 million in the first half of 2011 and 2012. According to the recent reports there are shown record levels of domestic sales and exports with increases as much as 8.84% and 3.45% respectively. Domestic sales of cement are likely to flourish and remain consistent as the federal budget 2012-2013 has lowered the excise duty to Rs 200 per ton and GST by 1%. Moreover cement demand in Pakistan is forecasted to increase by 20% in coming years as major development projects are in pipeline both funded by government and private sector e.g mega water and power project including Diamer Bhash multipurpose and two Chashma nuclear power projects and 56 housing and work projects under Public Sector Development Program etc.
Telecommunication industry in Pakistan flourished during the privatization in 90's. The current industry life cycle is depicted as follows:
Growing: close to maturity
"Pakistan Telecommunication Industry Life Cycle"
Although the Telecommunication industry is at the maturity stage around the world, in Pakistan it is still growing and is close to maturity.
The manufacturing of cement is still one of the most energy consuming processes that is under taken in the world today. But a lot of development has and still is taking place within the cement manufacturing industry with a view to meeting the government targets of reducing the amount of greenhouse gases produced per tonne of
The reason being, all the industry segments are not fully targeted and latest technology accessibility across Pakistan is still no achieved yet.
Telecom industry of Pakistan is divided into six segments namely Cellular, Fixed/ Land Line, Fixed wireless local loop (WLL), Payphones, Voice Over IP, Internet sector (Cable net and Dial up, Broadband & DSL, Wireless connections , WiMAX (Wireless internet access).
In order to meet the increasing trained manpower requirement of the Indian Cement Industry, a Human Resource Development (HRD) Project has been implemented with assistance from World Bank and DANIDA (Danish International Development Agency
Following are the Salient features of Pakistani Telecommunication industry:
High bargaining power of the customer exists as there is low or no switching cost.
Entry into the industry is difficult as there's a cut throat competition.
The industry depends upon the availability of limestone, clay or shale and gypsum. These natural materials are mined in different regions; as such factories are set up close to the sources of raw material.
High maintenance cost.
Fast technology change and risk of out datedness.
About 91% of the Pakistani population has access to the telecommunication services.
According to recent surveys the total Tele-density of Pakistan cellular, landline and Wireless local loop (WLL) is 72.1%.
Tele-density also referred to as telephone density is the no. of telephone connections for every hundred individuals living within a specified area.
Cellular sector share 56% of the total industry revenue.
The Cement Corporation of India, a public sector concern has set up a number of cement factories, in die country, one each in Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Assam and Haryana, two in Andhra Pardesh and three in Madhya Pradesh.
Telecommunication industry share 2% of the nations GDP.
PTCL has 90% share in the landline market.
Following pie chart shows the telecom sector volume distribution in the industry 2009-2010.
Following table shows increase in the Telecommunication industries contribution to Pakistan's GDP.
Therefore, as a minimum, there would be a significant increase in traffic movements required to transport the raw material to existing kilns, with consequent environmental impacts.
Telecom Sector Revenues (In Rs Billion)
2005-2010 89-236 71-61 7-47 12-2 13-10 357
Current Senario And Future Outlook: The telecom sector is the major contributor to government revenues as since the last decade, it has showed growth and progress because of deregulation and privatization of the sector.
Production of cement in this country is controlled mainly by private companies. The Associated Cement Company Ltd. (A.C.C.) and the Dalmia Group control bulk of the cement production.
The last three yrs have hindered its rapid growth, due to investment shortfall, as the Economic survey 2011-12 of Pakistan showed that investments decreased by 56.4 % i.e they are $496.8 million in fiscal year 2010-11 as compared to $ 1,137.5 million in 2009-2010. This decrease in investment is due to the shortfall of revenues of the cellular operators because of tough competition in the industry, which has made investor cautious to invest more capital.
Development of means of transport and availability of capital are other factors which determine development of cement industry.
The foreign direct investment decreased by 78.9% during fiscal year 2010-11. Although the revenues generated by the companies in telecom sector has increased by 5.4% during last year but the cost on infrastructure, expanding coverage areas and service improvements are quite high. The FDI can be encouraged if the government takes interest and provide 3G/4G technology licenses, which are pending for some while now.
MSWIA eco-cement use less energy as well as ‘clinkering’ takes place at 1350°C as apposed to 1450°C.
Even countries like Nepal, Sri Lanka and India have introduced these technologies resulting in huge GDP gains and socio-economic development. 159 countries around the world provide 3G/4G technology. There is a huge market of mobile telephony and mobile broad brand in Pakistan, as there is huge growth in population.
The Dalmia Group entered in the field of cement manufacturing in 1937. This group set'up its factories at Dalmianagar Bihar, Dadri (Haryana) and Dalmiapuram (Tamil Nadu). At the time of partition, there were 18 cement factories with an annual installed
capacity of 21-15 Lakh tons.
PTA has depicted that broadband penetration will reach 10 subscribers per 100 inhabitants by 2020, touching nearly 78 million users, making it a lucrative market. Current coverage of telecommunication industry is covering 70% of total Pakistan's population which is expected to increase up to 85% in next 3 years.
What is required within the cement manufacturing industry are some lower energy consuming cements that give of less carbon emissions during manufacturing to be developed and take over where the traditional cements left off. If this cannot be done then the negative effects that are
currently damaging the environment will only
continue to develop and have
greater detrimental effect on the planet.
Lucky Cement Limited is sponsored by Yunus Brothers Group (YB Group), one of the largest business groups of the country, based in Karachi and Pezu (NWFP), has grown remarkably over the last 50 years. Lucky Cement rose in 1996. They have the largest cement production with a production capacity of 7.75 million tons. LCL also the first exporter and Pakistan's largest cement is loose and the only cement manufacturer charging and storage terminal at Karachi.
Cement manufacturing is carried on at a number of centres in the state of Gujarat. The Saurasthra Cement Company and Digvijay Company dominate cement production in the state.
Other exclusive features that allow cement fortunate to stand before its competitor is the transportation fleet of 77 bulkers as well as two ship loaders.
Products: Lucky Cement now produces five brands of cement:
Lucky Sulphate resistant cement(SRC)
Vision: Lucky Cement envisions to be the leader of the cement industry in Pakistan, and wants to identify and exploit new opportunities in the global market, and contributed to industrial progress and sustainable future, while being responsible corporate citizens.
In comparison, Portland cement which is based on calcium oxide and has to be produced by firstly heating calcium carbonate (limestone) to approx 900 °C, again with CO2 as a by product.
Mission: Lucky Cements mission to be premium cement manufacturer by building a professional organization, a technologically state-of-the-art, and identifying new customers around the world to reach and maintain the service quality standards to cater to the needs of the international construction with an environment-friendly approach.
Compared with Portland cement the energy savings are quoted as being approx as high as 25%, along with limestone reductions of 60 % together with a reduction in CO2 emissions of approx 20%.
Customer Focused: By providing quality, consistent and fair procedures.
Entrepreneurship: by being proactive and indentifying opportunities.
Social Responsibility: by providing sustainable development.
Clinkers are discharged from the lower end of the kiln and brought down to a manageable temperature by means of various types of coolers. The coolers do however at this stage help towards reducing Co2 emissions by saving fuel by returning the hot air emitted from the cooling clinkers back into the cylindrical kiln as part of the controlled air used to
sustain the flame used.
Ethics and Integrity: by being upright and reliable.
Innovation: bringing creative solutions and setting trends.
Excellence: by providing benchmark practices and continuous improvement.
Business strategy: Lucky Cement believes in:
Holdings and increasing their local dominant.
The start of cement manufacturing in India goes back to 1904, when the first cement factory was set up in Madras. Its production was as low as 30 tonnes a day, as such it failed.
Increasing their share of international market by expanding their horizon and their work is not routine resource markets.
Cost and energy efficiency.
Sustainable development efforts.
HR excellence by nurturing our human capital.
Competitor: DG Khan Cement, Maple Leaf Cement, Fauji Cement, Best Way Cement and all the small producers and exported of cement in Pakistan.
The Akaltara Cement Factory produces about 11 lakh tonnes of cement every year. New plants are located at Rewa and Neemuch.
Achievements: Lucky Cement has been awarded as the Top Sales, Income tax Payer, Exporter and Imported. They were also awarded with National CSR Excellence Award, Brand of the Year Award and Annual Environment Excellence Award.
The report show’s how the process of cement production was under taken and what steps have or are waiting to be implemented in the production of cement that will be less damaging to the UK environment.
PTCL (Pakistan telecommunication Ltd):
PTCL is the largest telecommunications provider in Pakistan. PTCL also continues to be the largest CDMA-operator in the country with 0.8 million V-Fone customers. The company maintains a leading position in Pakistan as an infrastructure of other operators and corporate customers across the country.
Other cement factories are at Madhukarni, Dalmiapuram, Poliyur, Chhattisgarh, Alangulam, Talaiyuthu, Sankaridurg and Aryalur.
Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation (PTC) took over the operations and functions from Pakistan Telephone and Telegraph Department under Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation Act 1991. This coincided with the competition policy of the government to encourage the private sector and as a result of the issuance of licenses for mobile, payment cards, telephones, paging and, more recently, the data communication services.
In 1995, the Pakistan Telecommunication (reorganization) of the order form the basis of PTCL monopoly over basic telephony in the country.
In order to meet the growing demand of cement, a number of factories were set up in the country. Presently, there are 120 factories.
Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited was formed and listed on all stock exchanges in Pakistan. PTCL launched its mobile and data services subsidiaries in 2001 and the name of Ufone and PakNet respectively.
Initially, one of the state corporations (SOEs), PTCL stake was reduced to 62%, when 26% of the shares, and the control was sold to Etisalat Telecommunications and the remaining 12% to the public in 2006 under the privatization program intensify.
The state of Tamil Nadu has a very well developed cement industry. There are eight factories, Ths Talukapatli cement factory is one of the largest in the country. Its annual capacity is about 10 lalch tonnes.
PTCL has laid Fibre optic access network in the major urban centers of Pakistan and the local cycle began modernized and upgraded from copper to optical network. For long distance and international parties to the infrastructure capacity of two SEA-ME-WE submarine cable is being expanded to meet the growing demand for international transport.
However, at times the country has to import cement from Poland, Indonesia, Korea etc. to meet the growing demand of cement in the country.
Vision: The vision of PTCL to be the leading information and communications technology services in the region by achieving customer satisfaction and maximum 'value' shareholders.
Mission: PTCL wants to achieve this vision, which are: organizational environment that fosters professionalism, motivation and quality of the environment, that is cost-effective and quality-conscious, service, based on the most optimal technologies, "Quality" and "Time" conscious customer service , sustained revenue growth and profitability.
Wire line operations
Fixed service line through the CDMA WLL based (Wireless Local Loop) network, branded VFone
Internet segment, fixed broadband access over ordinary copper wire and FTTC and wireless broadband technology EVDO Rev A, B, C technology trademark EVO
Cellular segment, the second largest cellular provider in Pakistan, Ufone GSM-based 800/1900 technology, also a subsidiary of PTCL.
These two states are the largest producer of cement in India. The centres are at Jamul, Satna, Banmore, Katni, Gopalnagar, Durg, Kaymore, Tilda, Khor, Mandhar.
The world's first commercial HD TV services based on IP-TV services under the brand Smart TV and supervision and home alarm over broadband under iSentry brand.
Submarine cable network: SEA-ME-WE 3, SEA-ME-WE 4, I-ME-WE.
These different varieties of cement are produced strictly under BIS specifications and the quality is comparable with the best in the world.
Competitors: Internet Service Providers: Wateen, Wi tribe, World Call. Mobile companies: Warid, Telenor, Zong, Mobilink. Etc.
Achievements: 2012 / PTCL connects remote Balochistan through it Vphone wireless service, awarded 3RD Global Award Excellence, ESRI Special Achievement in GIS (geographic information system).
Cement is one of the single most important materials relied upon in the world, without cement we would not be able to build houses, roads, bridges and other public structures that cement products help to build. We need cement to produce concrete
; concrete is basically a mixture of two components: aggregates and paste. The paste is usually composed of Portland
cement and water, and when mixed together it binds the fine and coarse aggregates together.
Driving forces make industries flexible, because the life force behind the wheel of industry participants (customer, supplier or competitor) is to manage their plans and actions. These drivers cause an industry to change, to come up with plausible environment. It has a big influence on how the industry landscape will be changed.
This can be achieved by implementing new procedures in the process of manufacturing cement and also by using different materials in this process, all of these ideas and more are currently being implemented or are being developed for
implementation in the near future by the cement industry and associated partners.
Driving forces analysis: Its important as it helps in determining what type of drivers are?, analyzing their momentum effect on the industry, determining which type of strategy should be developed and should have a positive effect on the overall strength of the industry?
Emerging applications of the Internet: Using Internet technologies helps many industries and companies, and it creates opportunities and helps the industry to take advantage of all opportunities.
The production of cement was boosted up after 1950. It is because of developmental work in the country, like construction of multipurpose river valley projects, means of transport, industries and housing activity.
Here we are in a technological age, where everything is available on the Internet. In a business context, the use of the Internet plays an important role. Products industry always has a great system of the value chain, therefore, more difficult to monitor the overall value chain.
The link between cement production and Co2 production is quite apparent as studies have been carried out by scientists who have concluded that there are a variety of human activities that are producing greenhouse gases such as Co2.
Suppose, if the industrial output to your Internet services available, it helps her to one of the following ways:
Increasing Globalization: Industry is moving towards globalization. Businesses with long-term strategy can move from regional> National> multinational> International> Globalization (worldwide). Global competition begins, and it allows a business to increase their presence in each market, otherwise it will have to turn off your business.
Cement industry of India faces problems like those of shortage of coal for running the factories and at times shortage of railway wagons for the transportation of cement to the markets.
Production activity transfer / migrate to other countries where there is a low production cost. Global competition rises between market leaders and market followers.
Globalization is happening as it be seen an increased customer and their requirements in different countries, Government measures to reduce trade barriers.
The Vadodra, Okha, Viraval, Bhavnagar factories are located at Ranavav, Sikka, Ahmedabad, Dwarka, Porbander, Sevalia and Amiragarh. Gujarat state has rich resources of raw material required for cement manufacturing.
Europe, Latin America and Asia, Significant changes in the cost of labor -> location of plants, for example, China, India, Singapore, Mexico, the U.S., Germany and Japan, where there is cheap labor costs, Achieving economies of scale is very difficult, because the company's competitors to sell their products in many countries.
Changes in the industry long-term growth: This is one of the main driving forces of the industry.
The industry is attributed to enormous reserves of raw material in the state, availability of cheap labour and demand for cement.
Offset industry growth up or down is a driving force for change in the industry, and it affects different sectors of supply and customer demand. Entering and leaving the competition in the industry, also affects the growth rate. To constant growth of the industry should come up with a flexible strategic goal and put hard efforts to meet it. It is always important for the industry to have a strategic plan to achieve long-term growth, because only the presence is not important, but having the stability is vital as well.
Changes in who buys the product and how they use it: This is important for the industry term target their market in accordance with the buyer demographics.
Eco-cements are currently being manufactured in Japan, they are based on the traditional Portland cement in as such that they are processed in much the same way as traditional Portland cement but approx 50% of the content has been replaced by municipal solid waste incinerator ash (MSWIA), and the fossil-fuels used for heating purposes have been replaced by waste products such as oil
and non recyclable plastics.
Changes in customer requirements affect the picture or substitute products or differentiated products. Industry needs to have information about their customers, as well as on how the market will react if there is a need for change in the product industry should add features to the product to maintain its existence, the buyer.
There would seem to be no obvious technical barriers to production in the UK. However, manufacture would be dependent on the availability of MSWIA and its location to existing cement works. Currently, this is in short and irregular supply in the UK but even if this were not to be the case, 'public perception' issues might arise about the process of
manufacturing, so the likelihood of producing a familiar Portland cement by this process is at present very unlikely.
Innovative product: This is one of the key concepts of marketing. Innovation means to come up with creative / innovative product. This is a key driving force pushing the industry trend up or down, because we know, the concept of the pioneers became pioneers will always be either favorable or unfavorable to the industry again depends on the firm's strategy making.
BCA - British cement Association, Sustainable Development Task Force Report (2005) [online].
Change in technology and innovation of the production process: Changes in technology could lead the industry to change its business processes dramatically. Technology changes a consequent impact on the industry value chain, we assume that the industry caused a change in technology has to change its production process through the adoption of innovative technologies and process changes eventually change the supply chain in the industry.
This report is on an area of the UK construction industry that has a negative impact on the environment. This report was undertaken and focuses on the environmental impact that the production process of cement has on the environment in the UK
and how the process in
manufacturing cement is changing/developing for the future.
Marketing Innovation: The successful organization always comes up with various marketing tools in order to maintain existing customers and new customers by meeting their needs. Let the industry acceptance of advertising (one of the marketing tools) to promote their product, the industry should advertise it so that it's right to attract a buyer. Attach feelings buyers, emotions and values â€‹â€‹in the product attribution.
Entry or exit of large firms: Sometimes it is an opportunity for the industry to be in and out of large firms, because the entry of the company, who drive their competitors will greatly influence the industry The output of the big firms are also very important.
At this stage in the process, the quantity of CO2 released is less than that from an equivalent mass of magnesium carbonate but the calcium oxide, plus other ingredients then has to be heated to 1450 °C to produce the final
product a “clinker”. This other process is accompanied
by more CO2 being emitted during the whole process, with the resulting CO2 being much greater than that emitted during the production of the same quantity of magnesite.
The dissemination of technical know-how: Basically it is a firm that has a high quality of expertise has a comparative advantage over their competitors. Know-how skills are often urged to industry, which is capital intensive and that has more on the basis of technology (machines).
This article appeared in the Guardian on Thursday May 11 2006 on p1 of the technology section.
Know how to always require skills in the industry of automobile, tires, consumer electronics, telecommunications and computers. Technology transfer has become one of the most important driving force in the globalized marketing and competition.
Changes in cost and efficiency: It is always important for the industry have the advantage of low cost supplier. When it comes to the purpose of any business purpose, everyone has a low cost of production and efficiency. Production on the economy of scale is acceptable.
The magnesium oxide is produced by heating magnesium carbonate as a mineral magnesite, to a temperature of around 650 °C. A quantity of CO2 is given off during this process.
E-tailing can have a lower cost in comparison to the brick-and-mortar retailers.
Growing buyer preferences differentiated products rather than commodity products: This is always in favor of the firm, which has a loyal customer or brand awareness.
EcoSmart, cement production and the CO2 challenge (no date) [online].
In order to keep loyal customers of the company should have to come up with differentiated products instead of the commercial product. Changes in consumer preferences change the pattern of behavior as a buyer retaining and attracting new existence can be profitable for the firm.
Reduction of uncertainties and business risks: The problem of uncertainty and business risk is always in any kind of business. The political factor affects so many business firms to risks and uncertainties.
Rajasthan has rich potentials for cement manufacturing. Cement factories are located at Lakheri, Sawai Madhopur, Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Bundi, Banas, Beawar, Nimbaheda and Sirohi.
Industry must find their business operations, where there is less uncertainty. New growth areas, of course, face the problem of unproven cost structure, a lot of uncertainty with the potential size of the market, how much time and money required for technology adoption. Competition in the international market is also affected by the lower risks to the business and industry uncertainty.
Regulating effect and changes in public policy: The role of the state regulators can often cause significant changes in industry practices and policy approaches. The role of SBP (State Bank of Pakistan) in the financial market of Pakistan is very important. When the SBP will announce changes in monetary policy, it is actually showing the industry to change its in production. If the garden is on an expansionary monetary policy, it really wants to expand the money supply will grow the economy and encourage foreign investors to invest in Pakistan.
Change in social issues, relationships, and lifestyle: Social issues and the changes in attitude and lifestyle is a powerful indicator of the industry changes.
BCA - British cement Association, Carbon Strategy (2005) [online].
We know that society plays a vital role in any business context. We as citizens of Karachi are after the Western culture and, therefore, to make our industry to change the traditional way of life in the Western way of life.
Three more factories were established just after independence at Talaiyuthu (Tamil Nadu), Kottayam (Kerala) and Sikka (Gujarat).
To understand the topic at hand and to draw results from our industry analysis and company wide information we need to define what driving forces are. For this purpose many definition from various sources have been compiled and the concept is summarized.
Relevant literature has been obtained from various sources. Google was the most prominent source. Business recorder website enlightened about the current trends.
A typical mix is about 10 to 15% cement, 60 to 75% sand/aggregate, 10 to 20% water and 5 to 8% air.
Company websites were also consulted to get annual reports. Industrial data was obtained from FBR and State Bank websites to obtain economic surveys. Strategic management book by Strickland was also consulted for understanding of the Driving forces.
Driving forces are termed as key internal and external forces that shape the future of any organization.
Most of the stages in the manufacturing of cement have a negative impact on the environment, and this report highlights those direct and indirect effects, and how the future of cement manufacturing will continue to implement new methods of manufacturing to reduce the negative effects on the environment
External forces may be termed as economy, technology, competitors etc and internal forces being the organizations workforce, culture, processes etc. They are also termed as the force behind something in motion i.e the industry change/ moving towards specific direction/ staying competitive.- InvestorWords
Driving forces are also termed as the primary determiner of the scope of the future products and markets- basically determine the organization's strategy. They are the most dominant factors in influencing the most important decisions in question.- Tregoe and Zimmerman.
ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION:
Driving forces relevant to Lucky Cement: Increase of Globalization: Lucky Cement entered into a joint venture to make an investment in a major international project, not to expand and diversify its business in local projects. It was a joint venture with the cement plants in the DR Congo, Africa and Iraq.
India also manufactures asbestos cement. Twelve units in the country manufacture asbestos cement.
Machinery and equipment for a project in Africa was organized by the European supplier. Demand for Pakistani cement on the high side in Africa and Lucky Cement attempted to seize this opportunity with both hands.
Under this Project, four Regional Training Centres have been set up at ACC -Jamul (M.P), Dalmia Cement Dalmiapuram (T.N.), JK Cement Nimbahera (Rajasthan) and Gujarat Ambuja, Ambuja Nagar (Gujarat).
It also helped him to save logistics costs of cement export in Africa. In Iraq, the war on terrorism, Lucky Cement has given an opportunity to put a plant there, and because the city is in need of renovation. This led to higher revenue. Lucky Cement also acquired ICI Pakistan. Three firms have expressed concern the purchase ICI; Lucky Cement, Nishat Mills Limited and Fajr Capital Dubai ICorp. Of these, Lucky Cement lucky enough to take on the Lucky Cement. ICI is Pakistan's most respected companies, and it can attract some of the best graduates most ranking highest in industry. Product and market innovation: Lucky Cements performance and high quality of its products is through the use of state-of-the-art technologies and manufacturing processes. Their goal is to produce durable products that are easy to use and provide additional value to our customers. To offer customized solutions to our clients, we are constantly investing in the development and improvement of products in the field of cement, concrete and building materials.
Cement manufacturing in the Bihar state is done at Japla, Sindri, Dalmianagar, Kalyanpur, Khalari and Chaibasa. Two new factories have been set up at Bhawanthpur. The rich coal and lime-stone reserves are the major assets for the development of cement
We as a well established company can rely on their own research departments, as well as the experience and expertise of our technology subsidiary Lucky cement. With the transfer of knowledge, comparison and performance optimization, as well as the introduction of the so-called best practice solutions across the group, innovation and new technologies can be implemented quickly, resulting in improved products and processes for the benefit of our customers around the world.
Change of Technology And Innovation Production Process: Mining, crushing and grinding of raw material processes that are involved in the production of cement. Further, these processes include calcimine materials in a rotary kiln, clinker cooling, mixing clinker with gypsum, milling, storage and packaging of finished cement. Limestone is mined from a nearby quarry and then transported to the dump. It is then turns to the desired size and mix in large stocks. More materials needed to bring it into the right shape, then added.
This mixture is then converted into a fine powder, which is then stored in large mixing silos. Then pulverized coal in a coal crusher and ground to a powder in the coal mill. This is used to heat the heater. Then the raw material comes in silos and is heated before it enters the furnace. A cement mill, gypsum and other additives and raw materials are added and ground to make the final form of cement. Innovation market: Good relations with neighboring countries, especially India and Afghanistan will create new market opportunities for Lucky Cement to use the full potential of the market for used cement plants. Pakistan currently has 42 million tons of cement production capacity, but due to low demand in the country, its use is low and almost 70 percent of the plants are in the loss. The demand for Pakistan to India has increased, because the quality of the cement was higher than that produced in the country, and prices were relatively low. It was also useful to take a cement plant in the Indian market because of logistical advantage that it was getting into Sri Lanka and Africa has also proved attractive to the emerging markets of Pakistani cement and Lucky Cement to put plants in the Congo and Iraq. Cement industry also face challenges in the country, because it was a lack of projects of social development and construction activities in the country has been slow. The cost of doing business was also high due to rising energy prices. Energy prices is the main cost of cement plant, so if the cost of energy will continue to grow and it will have a direct impact on the cost of cement, too.
Emerging new features and internet use: As the need of the business is growing every day, Lucky Cement has taken personal information management system, to provide business solutions that are effective and efficient. Management team Lucky Cement has played an important role in the developent of the process and to meet the growing challenges. Lucky Cement is also converted to an advanced version of Oracle 10G, in order to provide a new interface for their proprietary software modules.
This report was created in November of 2007 for Phil Harris, lecturer at Wolverhampton University for Environmental Science in construction.
This year, they have also focused on the automation of business processes in their plants for the effective functioning of processes.
Energy Efficiency: To achieve a sustainable future, a good business is to focus on energy efficiency. Lucky Cement has taken numerous steps to ensure that energy savings. They have reduced carbon dioxide emissions, using the current state of the heat recovery plant to produce them. This plant gives them the right to carbon credits. Now they are planning to introduce tire Dervied fuel than the use of coal. This project is a waste recycling plant restoration project type of value added in the cement sector, because it contains the same amount of energy as oil and twenty-five percent more energy than coal.
Changes in the industry long-term growth rate: Pakistan cement sector coverage with overweight positions associated with convincing estimates, domestic demand growth prospects, better pricing and easing price pressures. Higher public sector development program allocation in FY-12 led to a revival in domestic demand of cement and general elections to be held in 2013, the demand is likely to go higher. The rise in prices for cement and balanced growth of its demand is showing its increasing pressure value. Coal prices have fallen by 17%, while the installation of alternative ways of energy supply can increase margins further cement sector more.
4.2 Driving forces relevant to PTCL: Emerging applications of the Internet: Over the past two decades, is constantly evolving information and contact technologies (ICT) replaced as a catalyst for the world to develop new and greater opportunities, supporting the economy, improving health care by giving information and education, as well as the growth of our vision and vision. PTCL has more than three million fixed landline users and about one million broadband users in more than a thousand cities across Pakistan. PTCL as growing broadband telecommunications giant uprising in Pakistan with its modern and innovative cutting edge EVO 3G wireless broadband, which provides high mobility and fast wireless internet available to the masses of Pakistan. PTCL is now reaching areas where other networks are not. PTCL with its great new products, such as broadband and EVO become the largest market of broadband customers in Pakistan in the shortest amount of time, which is three years. It is because the dedicated staff and ideas PTCL. Fastest growing telecom companies in Pakistan PTCL to pioneer 3G-wireless broadband services in Pakistan also introduced the first cutting edge world EVDO REV-B commercial network. PTCL has also introduced activate 3g smart phones with touch EVODROID NFly with tab EVO expand advanced broadband services, the free flow of data and balanced access to technology for all segments of Pakistani.
Changes in the industry long-term growth: The telecommunications sector is one of the potential areas that remain a vital supplier to the Pakistani economy, thus contributing to Rs 363 billion in the current 2012, and it shows an increase of 5.4 percent over the previous year. According to the survey of the economy of Pakistan 2011-2012 invested more than $ 12 billion to continue the provision of infrastructure in the last six years.
PTCL has a 90 - 95 percent market share in the sector broadband DSL, which is an increase by 17 percent this year. PTCL wants to expand its DSL-services in an effort to improve Pakistan as one of the most dynamic economies in the world in terms of internet center. PTCL is dedicated to diverse portfolio of products, competitive price compared with others, and is up to 50 Mbps, which covers both urban and rural communities to meet their needs. According to a senior executive vice-president is relevant to note here that this broadband development has been achieved through the recession years, while the average of the GDP has less than 4% each year. This is even more phenomenal thinking about what he is currently the domestic product, ie one connection serves the whole family. Normal Pakistani family has 6.2 fellow average, which is stored in 29 million households, so that the real meeting more.
Innovative Product: Innovation is the need in the industry. To expand the content of this factor PTCL as the largest company in the industry introduced a variety of innovative products. He presented the wireless Internet access in Pakistan, which is called the PTCL 3G EVO, which covers 250 cities across Pakistan. Now PTCL launches 3G PTCL EVO Tab, which is the first 3G Android Smartphone Pakistan relief tablet that has built EVO wireless broadband services, which supports double save to EV-DO and GSM / CDMA networks.
Changes in who buys the product and how they use it: PTCL was originally just a phone line, which was used as voice calls, but now PTCL more products than ever before. PTCL established clients in general by introducing technologies in the country. PTCL is now in broadband Internet business, Smart TV, Vfone, smartphones, tablets, and more. With the advancement of tech, PTCL has improved its products and services to capture the market and give their best to their customers. Currently, 95% share in the market of broadband Internet access, which is a great achievement PTCL. Now PTCL customers along with voice-only calls can take advantage of different services that offer PTCL.
Change in technology and innovation of the production process: Advancement in technology can change your industry. With the change in the telecommunications industry PTCL made numerous investments in infrastructure progress and added network capacity to promote services and increase its understanding of the country. Market in Pakistan is extremely competitive and PTCL has the largest nationwide set of skills Web infrastructure, covering switching, transmission, fiber optic lines, co-location and global capacity.
This gives a unique position in PTCL words offering individual customers. From a technical point of view, PTCL allocated optical fiber access network in the main capital cities of Pakistan and on the other hand local loop services began to be reorganized and improved the optical network for optical networks from traditional copper. PTCL, has additionally authorized the agreement along with Huawei Technologies Pakistan and Hewlett Packard (HP) jointly raise the Network Center operations enterprise, that the current state of a system fault detection and resolution techniques. This process should initiate a procedure for the main center, and three local networks, along with the implementation of signaling associations across the PTCL network in a summarized form.
BCA - British cement Association, concrete (no date) [online].
Marketing Innovation: Marketing Innovation involves methods that expand the industry requirements. Due to the wide publicity and lower tariffs for all services PTCL expand its market demand. Narrow analysis of tariffs and study major telephone operators working around the world, including developed and under developed countries, was held in the marketing department of PTCL back in 2003 and 2004. This analysis resulted in a significant reduction in fees and charges for the year. Line rental, installation charges, national and international telephone tariffs and rates Internet bandwidth is also reduced to capture the market and be competitive. Huge marketing campaign, which was based on the strategy of the recognition of the target audience and advertising media that are created excellent results were started in urban and rural settlements in order to attract the largest possible number of consumers. The use of scientific research institutions, cable TV and DSL market survey estimates PTCL also gathered customer feedback, it was to take customer opinion.
Interpretation drawn from this study is that driving forces act as change agents in channelizing an industry direction. Hence all companies in that specific industry must identify these drivers and hence plan accordingly for their future direction i.e formulating a strategic action plan. The companies who are successful in doing so attain an edge over its rivals and sustain a dominant position in the industry.
Here both PTCL and Lucky Cement are dominant players in their respective industries.
But for a few exceptions eco-cements are virtually indistinguishable from Portland cement and consequently have very much the same properties, performance.
Their success being able to grasp industry change agents and plan accordingly. They have maneuvered according to industry changes and are anticipating future progress. They have strategized their processed and are moving in a right direction to achieve their mission and hence vision.
Driving forces vary from industry to industry. Globalization here is a common driving force. The need for businesses to expand and capitalize on their strengths is important. No one can succeed in isolation.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS:
Companies in cement sector can opt for backward integration and become their own supplier of good quality indigenous coal, which is imported at a higher cost from countries like Indonesia, China and South Africa, to minimize energy cost.
Further cement industry can divulge into producing some more varieties of cements and reach out to the un-tap markets in the international arena.
PTCL should focus on improving its services, to sustain its competitive edge and new product demands e.g they can improve the signal problem encountered by there V-phone users. Signals strength is a concern for PTCL, as they are not available is all parts of Karachi.
As there is lack of research and development culture in Pakistan's telecom sector, PTCL can initiate this culture by building technology locally.
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