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Theories and concepts in leadership

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    Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 18th May, 2017

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    The term leader is defined as a person initiating interaction with other members of a group, a person who moves the group towards group role.

    To be called a leader, one must be performing leading roles repeatedly under varying conditions (English dictionary 1987; Gibb 1965) (leaders and leadership roles in relation to effective management of human resources by John Domingo)

    Social psychologist define leadership as the process through which one member of a group (its leader) influences other group members towards the attainment of specific group goals (Yukl,1994).

    Leadership however is essentially a process of mutual stimulation which by successful interplay of relevant individual differences controls human energy in pursuit of a common cause.
    At Headquarters level, the NCC is headed by a Director General with the rank of lieutenant-general. He is assisted by two Additional Director Generals (A and B) of two-star rank (major-general, rear-admiral or air vice-marshal). Five Brigadier level officers and other civil officials also assist him. The Headquarters is located in Delhi. There are 17 Directorates located in the state capitals headed by an officer of the rank of a Maj Gen from the three Services. Depending upon the size of the state and growth of NCC in the states, Directorates have up to 14 Group Headquarters under them through which they exercise their command and control of the organisation in the state. Each group is headed by an officer of the rank of Brigadier or equivalent known as Group Commander. Each NCC Group Headquarters control 5-7 units(Bns) commanded by Colonel/Lt.Col or equivalent. Each Battalion consists of companies which are commanded by the Associate NCC Officer(ANO) of the rank of lieutenant to major. In all there are 95 Group Headquarters in the country who exercise control over a network of 667 Army Wing Units(including technical and girls unit), 60 Naval Wing Units and 61 Air Squadrons. There are two training establishments namely Officers Training School, Kamptee (Nagpur, Maharashtra) and Women Officers Training School, Gwalior.

    (Ekong, 2003)

    Leadership calls for certain qualities or characteristics firstly on the part of the individual who want to become a leader and secondly on the part of a group who want to respond favorably to the individuals leading acts.

    In the first place, a leader must have the ability to influence others.
    After 1965 and 1971 wars NCC syllabus was revised. Rather than just being second line of defence, NCC syllabus laid greater stress on developing quality of leadership and officer like qualities. The military training which the NCC cadets received was reduced and greater importance was given to other areas like social service and youth management.

    This may be derived from his personal characteristics such as height, handsomeness or some general personal appeal, abilities to speak and win the crowd, the possession of specific skills known to and desired by the group, being wealthy and or generous, having known connections with external sources of power or occupying known official positions , and so forth.
    The NCC directorates are headed by service officers of the rank of major general and equivalent; group headquarters are headed by service officers of the rank of colonel and equivalent, and units are headed by service officers of the rank of colonel(TS)/lieutenant colonel/major or equivalent. They are responsible for proper training, planning and execution of NCC activities.

    Studies in Nigeria have also shown that among other characteristics, age, being married, honesty, humility and industry are highly valued in being accepted as a community leader (Adeogun, 1976).

    Second, a leader must have the ability to identify with the group he leads.

    This entails the ability to place oneself in another's position; consideration for others, emotional stability, readiness to delegate tasks, love for and constant identification with the group, selflessness, and loyalty to group ideas and goals, etc.
    NCC was first started in 1666 in Germany. The NCC in India was formed with the National Cadet Corps Act of 1948. It was raised on 15 July 1948. The origin of NCC can be traced back to the ‘University Corps’, which was created under the Indian Defence Act 1917, with the objective to make up the shortage of the Army. In 1920, when the Indian Territorial Act was passed, the ‘University Corps’ was replaced by the University Training Corps (UTC). The aim was to raise the status of the UTC and make it more attractive to the youth. The UTC Officers and cadets dressed like the army. It was a significant step towards the Indianisation of armed forces. It was rechristened in the form of UOTC so the National Cadet Corps can be considered as a successor of the University Officers Training Corps (UOTC) which was established by the British Government in 1942. During World War II, the UOTC never came up to the expectations set by the British. This led to the idea that some better schemes should be formed, which could train more young men in a better way, even during peace. A committee headed by Pandit Hradaya Nath Kunjru recommended a cadet organization to be established in schools and colleges at a national level. The National Cadet Corps Act was accepted by the Governor General and on 15 July 1948 the National Cadet Corps came into existence.

    A person may also assume leadership because of the innate conditioned need in him to lead and or dominate others. However, for his leadership to be accepted by the people he must have other desirable characteristics, which he would have to project it to the group In certain instances, people have assumed leadership on the assumption that they have a divine call or revelation to lead others.
    Naval wing syllabus is common for both boys and girls. During sea training naval subjects like Seamanship, Navigation, Communication, Gunnery, Damage Control and Ship Safety are taught to cadets. Swimming, Scuba Diving and Wind Surfing are other interesting activities.

    A number of self appointed prophets and religious leaders fall into this group. Apart from their claims to divine call, such people still have to develop other personal qualities mentioned earlier, and or show extraordinary power(eg. healing, fortune telling, making of very potent charms,etc)to be accepted by others.
    Associate NCC officers are given following ranks according to their seniority and their training.

    In all several types of leaders can be identified according to the following criteria:

    Path of attaining leadership position, power, authority, scope of influence and orientation. It must be noted before hand that these are not mutually exclusive categories.

    This was a shocker for us because we were expecting the camping to be something like 10 day theme park enjoyment experience! We were obviously shocked because we were exposed to living in the natural environment for the first time - Away from the comforts of our home! A lot of us (me) got home sick. I even wrote one letter to my parents asking them to come and see me 🙂 These kind of negative-tone letters were not supposed to go to parents, but mine somehow did! Maybe it was slightly positive 🙂 They came on the seventh day to see me. But by that time, I was feeling much better and more adjusted.

    One leader can fall into all or most of these classifications which leads to types of leaders and path to leadership the first being situational leader this refers to one who foresees crises or the needs of a group and takes initiative in either rectifying the situation or mobilizing others to meet such a situation.
    ANO is an important link in the NCC organization between the BN and the cadets. As amatter of fact, ANO is the feeder node of NCC since he / she is the one who is in direct contact with the cadets all throughout the year. There are two training establishments namely Officers Training Academy, Kamptee and Women Officers Training Academy, Gwalior. These two institutions train the school and college teachers selected to head the company/troop. Courses in these institutions range from 21 days to 90 days in duration.

    And that is why it is argued that leaders are not born but made by situations.

    Now comes the question what is the base of leadership, this was given by Cartwright and Zander Leadership involves the ability to influence, director control others which means that leadership involves the use of power.

    I think the NCC dress (khakis), belts, cap, shoes (boots, actually) and everything else was given by the Government to all the kids participating in the program. Of course, we were thrilled! We were also told that we would be given food on one day (of the two days per week it was conducted). We didn’t know the price we were going to pay for freebies, back then!

    Weber (1961) defined power as the ability to affect one's own will against resistance from others. Power may be exercised by using force, we tend to think of power in relation to government, it is well to remember that it is exercised in many other context as well: in family, schools, hospitals and businesses wherever it is possible to manipulate conditions so that people must obey.
    We had to wake up at 5:00 AM everyday, exercise for one and a half hours, take bath, eat breakfast, participate in some drill related activities (yeah, the same march past 🙁 ), eat lunch, take up an allocated activity for our school (ranging from pistol shooting to community service - cleaning, bringing water, etc), take rest in the evenings, participate in what was called cultural programs in the late evenings (where students were required to perform some cultural activities, mainly for the amusement of the military officers), eat dinner and sleep. We were strictly instructed not to go out of our camps in the nights.

    The leader must have a recognized power, the sources of which may be within or outside the group led. When his power is from the group, this is spontaneously accorded him by his followers, whereas where the sources of powers is located externally there may be some elements of coercion.
    In 1948, the Girls Division was raised in order to give equal opportunities to school and college going girls. The NCC was given an inter-service image in 1950 when the Air Wing was added, followed by the Naval Wing in 1952. Same year, the NCC curriculum was extended to include community development/social service activities as a part of the NCC syllabus at the behest of Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru who took keen interest in the growth of the NCC. Following the 1962 Sino-Indian War, to meet the requirement of the Nation, the NCC training was made compulsory in 1963. In 1968, the Corps was again made voluntary.

    Cartwright and Zander (1960) have identified five bases of power of a group leader. These include reward power: Which derives from the belief on the part of the followers that they will be rewarded in some way for complying , in this instance ,power is exercised effectively whenever one party can grant or withhold what another party needs but cannot get elsewhere ; Coercive power: Which arises from the belief that non compliance will result in punishment, expert power: In this case when a person is evaluated to have needed knowledge , information or skill which cannot be obtained readily elsewhere ,that person holds expert power over the group.
    The best certificate is C, which has the highest value. (i) A cadet has to obtain 45% marks in each paper & 50% marks in the aggregate to pass the examination. Grading is based on total marks obtain will be awarded as follows. (aa) Grading 'A' - Cadets obtaining 80% marks and above. (ab) Grading 'B' - Cadets obtaining 65% marks and above but below 80%. (ac) Grading 'C' - Cadets obtaining 50% marks and above but below 65%. (ad) Fail - Cadets obtaining less than 45% in any paper or less than 50% in aggregate.

    , referent power : This is the power the leader has as a result of his having qualities which the group members like , admire and want to identify with. They submit to him because they identify with him.
    We had to stay in tents on the ground, there were no shops / no signs of any other human activity at least for a radius of five kilometers, the food/ bathrooms were hopeless, we were staying in a ground that was surrounded by dense trees and we were warned against going near the trees because sometimes there were some snakes there!

    Legitimate power: this derives from the office or official position which the individual occupies and which gives him the right to cont5rol others and equally compels others to comply. The tax collector, the police all have legitimate powers to do their work.
    Of course, we had some fun moments also - We had that pistol-shooting session, for which we were waiting for such a long time! In the name of trekking (we ‘climbed’ a flat-land actually!), we went out with some senior NCC cadets (from college), who on seeing our plight stopped our vehicle in a town nearby and we bought some biscuits / drank some cool drinks. That cool drink tasted delicious that day!

    Power is usually conceived in terms of authority and of influence. Authority and influence are not synonymous as an individual who has influence may not have any authority. Authority is derived from official position and is the power attached to that office whereas influence resides within the individual on the basis of his possession of certain characteristics or qualities which make other people want to submit to him (Ekong, 2003).

    During Indo-Pakistani war of 1965 & Bangladesh-Pakistani war of 1971, NCC cadets were second line of defence. They organized camp to assist ordnance factories, supplying arms and ammunition to the front and also were used as patrol parties to capture enemy paratroopers. The NCC cadets also worked hand in hand with the Civil defence authorities and actively took part in rescue works and traffic control.

    The basis on which authority is used affects the nature of the organization and of the society of which the organization is the part.(Leaders and leadership roles in relation to effective management of human resources by John Domingo in yang) (wwwacademicleadership.com)

    Discussion on leader's power and influence leads us to think of the styles of leadership. Leadership style is concerned with the behaviour of the leader towards his followers. .Ideally there is three leadership styles:

    Autocratic leadership style, in this all policies and procedures are determined by leader.

    My biggest problem was the food. I just hated whatever was provided. But since we were very hungry after those tedious drill sessions, we somehow started eating them fully after the third day or so. Yeah, for the first three days, I was not even able to eat! By the seventh day, when my parents actually came, I was already adjusted to the food! At least, it was no more a problem.

    The leader should take considerable responsibility for assigning the activity task and companions of each group member.

    Democratic leadership style, wherever possible the policies should be a matter of a group decision and discussion with active encouragement and assistance by the leader.

    What I don’t understand is, at least we didn’t know about the program and enrolled in it. But what made our juniors enroll? They should have pretty much known what was about to come! Anyway, that is not the point of this post. After about a year and a half of drills, we were told that we need to attend one mandatory NCC camp.

    Wherever, technical advice is needed the leader should try to suggest two or more alternative procedure from which choice can be made by the group members.

    Laissez-faire leadership style, in this leader should play a rather passive role in social participation and leave complete freedom for group or individual decisions in relation to activity and group procedure.

    The aim of YEP is a country-to-country exchange of cadets belonging to NCC/equivalet Govt/Youth Organisations of friendly countries and participation in various activities and appreciation of each other's socio-economic and cultural realities.

    Here the leader does not make any attempts to control the behaviour of the group members. He tends to relinquish his responsibility for most decisions in the organization to his subordinates.( Koehler anatol and applbaum, 1976)

    The function of any leader is to guide his group members.

    Advanced leader ship camp is conducted in many places. in this camp the officers give cadets training for ssb screening and entrance.

    He leads in so far as he is ahead of his group goals. The role of a leader as a guide connotes a person devoted to helping the group move effectively in the direction it chooses to move. The leader as a guide must assist the group to choose this direction judiciously based on his expert knowledge or other advantages.
    In 1954 the existing tricolor flag was introduced. The three colours in the flag depict the three services in the Corps, red for Army, deep blue for Navy and light blue for the Air Force. The letters NCC and the NCC crest in gold in the middle of the flag encircled by a wreath of lotus, give the flag a colourful look and a distinct identity. Each lotus represents one NCC Directorate(Dte).The two dots represents Officer Training Academy's in India they are at Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh and Kamptee, Maharashtra.

    The leader is a group spokesman. The leader is a group harmonizer and an enabler. In other words he is the one who keeps interpersonal relations pleasant, arbitrates disputes, provides encouragement, gives the minority a chance to be heard and increases interdependence among members.
    Eight rock climbing camps are held each year to expose the cadets to the basics of elementary rock climbing and to inculcate spirit of adventure amongst cadets. Four of these camps are held at Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh and other four camps at Nayyardam near Trivandrum in Kerala.

    He focuses discontent and enables group members verbalize such discontents, encourages organization and emphasizes common objectives of the group. As an enabler he strives to make the group realize its potentialities and strength in cooperative work.
    The motto of NCC is 'Unity & Discipline' which was adopted on 23 Dec 1957. In living up to its motto, the NCC strives to be and is one of the greatest cohesive forces of the nation, bringing together the youth hailing from different parts of the country and moulding them into united, secular and disciplined citizens of the nation.

    He stimulates insight rather than provides all the answers and provides support for others who may want to share in the responsibilities of group organization and action. He is also a group educator or an expert.
    They are full of adventure, Cadets who want to experience something adventurous must attend them. Create memories never forgotten. the cadet who wants to participate, have a good stamina for walking. This camp is full of adventure.

    People submit to him because he is capable of bringing them to see the solutions to their problems. As an expert he provides research data, technical experience, and resource material, advises on methods and assists in evaluation. This may also imply expertise in knowing the traditions and customs of the people and being able to act as a resource person on traditions and cultural issues.
    One army person (I am not sure of his rank) was selected to train the cadets of our school. So, we were supposed to assemble in the play ground after school and he will start the drill. Drill consisted of only one activity - March past! That was the only activity we got to engage for the entire two years that it was conducted! And that instructor was very very strict, to say the least!

    The leader is the symbol of is the group's ideals and an agent of control. People submit to control of a leader because he is able to discern their underlying and inarticulate aspirations and to give them expression.
    NIC is to propagate national integration among cadets and society.'Only the best cadets in drills and march are sent to represent their states.'This camp is considered for SSLC and higher secondary course(+2) grace mark These camps are conducted on All India basis and help bridge the cultural gap among various States of India. In addition, there are six special NICs conducted at Leh, Nagrota (J&K), Chakabama (NER, Nagaland), Srinagar, Lakshadweep and Port Blair.

    He has the passion for the cause he represents and can crystallize this within men's hearts. He is loyal to the ideals and aspirations of the group so members look up to him for direction. The leader exercises control over his followers and not necessarily by using sanctions but by exhibiting certain qualities which nourish and maintain favourable sentiments e.g. courage, self sacrifice, hatred of vice, contempt for folly, a sense of national or community destiny, and so forth (Ekong 2003) (Leaders and leadership roles in relation to effective management of human resources by John Domingo in yang)

    Historical background of this topic shows us that research on leadership and has been a part of social psychology since its very earliest days: and in recent decades, this research has spilled outside social psychology to the closely related fields of industrial/organizational psychology and organizational behaviour .(Fiedler,1994;Greenberg&Baron,1995).leadership is an inherently subjective subject with many definitions associated to it (Zaharah Hassan 2004) .most of those definitions found in the literature agreed that leadership is mainly concerned with a person who tries to influence groups or followers to achieve certain objectives .the literature also indicates that there are various theories describing leadership such as the traits that leads to successful leaders (Stogdill,1950),and the roles that a leader needs to perform (Mintzberg,1973;Yukl1994). Early researchers viewed leadership in terms of `great person theory'-according to this theory ,great leaders posses certain traits that set them apart from most human beings ;until 1890 research designed to test the theory generally failed to yield positive findings(Geier,1969,Yukl1991).

    In C.A.T.C., the boys(Senior & Junior Division)and girl cadets(Senior & Junior Wing)of a particular NCC unit participate in the 10-day camp. Classes are conducted as per the given syllabus wherein certain aspects of NCC training are taught once again. The camp acts as a refresher training for the cadets and they are also trained in basic skills of survival and emergencies besides other topics. They are taught certain skills pertaining specifically to their Wing for e.g., a Naval cadet is trained in boat-rowing, oaring, Semaphore, etc. Another activity in the camp is the "dogwatch" wherein two cadets are to stay on sentry duty for two hours at any time given time of the day. Those caught sleeping, especially during late night or early morning shifts, or otherwise missing from duty are severely reprimanded or penalized. Cadets are also introduced to weapons such as a .22 caliber rifle.

    In recent years ,however this situation has changed greatly more sophisticated research methods ,coupled with a better understanding of basic dimensions of personality ,have led researchers to conclude that leaders do indeed differ from other persons in several important ways(Kirkpatrick & locke,1991) specifically ,recent findings(eg. Judge&Bono ,2000) suggest that several of what psychologists often term the Big Five Dimensions of Personality may play an important role in leadership(Barrick&mount/;1991).

    Total training period for SD and SW is 3 years with an extension of 1 year permissible & training period for JD & JW is of 2 years. Every cadet of the Senior or Junior Division has to undergo service training for a period of at least 4 hours per week during the training year. However, no training is carried out during periods when the college or school through which a cadet is enrolled is closed for a vacation. Every cadet of the Senior and Junior Division has undergo service training for a minimum period of 75% of total hours during the annual college and school session. Every cadet (in case of JD, who has completed one full year of training and is in his second year) attends an annual training camp of 9-10 days, also known as National Combined Annual Training Camp. For SD/SW the duration is usually for up to 30 days. At the end of the camp training the cadets receive a certificate of successful completion.

    Still we question what characteristics do these leaders have?

    Leadership in community: Moving from Gender the research on leadership has moved on to study of communities, organization and defence forces.

    This centrally organised camp is organised for Air Wing Cadets. Cadets from all directorates attend the camp. VSC is generally conducted in the month of October at Bengaluru.

    The word community is an umbrella term that is defined and applied in a myriad of ways.

    The construct of youth leadership and life skills development is a complex arrangement of experience, backgrounds and attitudes. In the measure of leadership skills of agriculture students leadership and life skills development were defined as skills in communication ,decision making, interpersonal relationship, learning and resource management, understanding self and working with group .participation in FFA leadership activities in combination with the variables after school jobs, years in the FFA .self reported cumulative grades and gender accounted for 22.3% of the variance in youth leadership and life skills development scores. As an addition to the body of knowledge surrounding youth leadership and life skills development this study has revealed an increase in the overall amount of variance explained for this concept, with less than 25% of the variance explained in the phenomenon known as leadership development.(journal of agricultural education24 volume38, 3,1997 Garry J Wingenbach & Alan A Kahler) .

    The hypothesis of this study is that, the leadership quality is higher in the students who undergo NCC training than regular students who do not take NCC training.

    I remember the students whipping some frenzy - Some of them said that they give ropes and we will be trained to climb up the school building! Some of them said that the certificate is very valuable and it will help us get good jobs/ get into the army, etc. Since we had no idea what it was, we thought it was some fun activity and enrolled anyway.

    Today NCC is second largest youth organization in the world and the largest in India (a hand book on NCC) .it is one of the major second line defence force which is known for imparting training in military aspects, it has now expanded its horizon and now aims at developing character qualities amongst cadets and making them into good leaders of tomorrow as well as useful citizens so that they can take their appropriate place in all walks of life in the service of the nation. The qualities of leadership, discipline, spirit de coups, courage and confidence with secular outlooks, which are hallmark of a leader are inculcated in the cadets through a well conceived programme of institutional training combined with adventure, sports and outdoor activities plus many other community development programme -such as disaster management ,adult literacy ,traffic control, village adoption ,tree plantation, blood donation are taken up which gives youths a comprehensive and a very good platform to take initiative in almost aspects of life.
    In addition to these SW & JW cadets wear white salwar and kamiz during activities other than parade. Rifle green beret is compulsory for all the cadets except Sikh cadets who wear rifle green turban. For physical training cadets wear brown canvas shoes and for drills black leather shoes called D.M.S (Drill March Shoes). Woolen vests are compulsory in cold areas whose colour varies khaki for army, dark blue for navy, and black for air. (Even NCC cadets wear INDIAN ARMY uniforms sometimes.)

    not only this the camps are conducted which constitutes the most vital part of national cadet corps where cadets get the thrill and joy of outdoor and community living stay together no matter how rich or how poor they are and thus teaches socialization, team spirit, unity in diversity through its motto of unity and discipline. (wwwncc.org.sg)

    The present study not only aims at adding more knowledge to the existing body of researches in past but it is also trying to go beyond the normal theories of styles, approaches and is focusing on a universal organization that aims at instilling leadership amongst youth .in today's world we have large number of organizations where we need leaders to lead the team to achieve the organizational goals ,whether it's the field of scientific research ,the corporate ,the defence, the political world the non governmental organizations etc. thus, it would be interesting to know how far it has been successful in this endeavor.

    Method

    Participants

    In this study there were two groups consisting of total 60 subjects of which there were thirty NCC students who had participated in various training camps of NCC and few also had an opportunity to attend the prestigious national and international camps like republic day camp and youth exchange programmes, many have also attended mountaineering and parasailing courses, horse riding cum show jumps.

    These camps are conducted by the NCC in collaboration with Indian Army, as the willing cadets are attached to the specific regiments undergoing the training period of 10-15 days. In this camp, the cadets are trained by the instructors of the particular regiment, in the military tactics including day/night warfare & also get familiar with the weaponry.

    These Students were taken from camp in Bison polo grounds Secunderabad. The non NCC students were the other regular college students taken from colleges like St. Ann's, Bhavans, CBIT, St.Francis, etc. all the sixty subjects were in the age group of (17-22) years.

    Material

    The research instrument used for the study was the Leadership Characteristics and Skills Survey questionnaire.

    By the end of the tenth day when we came out of the camp, our instructor teasingly asked if we wanted to stay for ten more days and we said, ‘Why not?’ 🙂 Sure, the experience was harrowing but we learned a surprising fact that given some time, humans can adapt to any situation. That learning, and the confidence it gave us to face difficult situations in life, is priceless!! Add to it, the discipline that those rigorous NCC drills inculcated into us.

    The first section of the survey consisted of a small section on personal information like name, age, category (NCC and non-NCC), and gender. The second part of the survey contained thirty questions which focused on individual's behaviour in a team. Leadership Characteristics and Skills Survey was assessed on five point Likert scale ranging from a score of (very weak-1, moderately weak-2, adequate-3, moderately strong-4, very strong-5). The purpose of this research was to find reliable information.

    Design

    In this study the students both from NCC and NON-NCC category formed the independent variables. The leadership qualities which was assessed was the dependent variable for this research .the age group from 17-22 was chosen for assessing the leadership qualities because the experimenter was keen in knowing whether a special course or training helps in enhancing one's managerial skills and also does it really makes a leader out of an ordinary human being. The other reason behind taking this age group was that the youngsters are the future leaders of tomorrow, so how far a youth organization like NCC has been successful in this endeavor of grooming future leaders, since NCC students basically fall in this age group and that is the reason this age was chosen for the study.

    Again, innocently we were thrilled! After all, it was ten days outside home and perhaps we might be able to go for trekking, gun shooting, rope-climbing (yeah, we never stopped hoping for that) and all other such fun activities! It took only one day for the reality to dawn on us.

    Procedure

    In order to obtain the data needed for the research the investigator approached to the ongoing NCC camp in Bison polo grounds where the investigator got her first samples i.e. the NCC cadets .similarly for the other group the investigator approached the city students of different colleges .the LCSS questionnaire comprising of thirty questions were distributed among these NCC cadets and other students who are not part of this organization and comprises of the second type of sample. Participants were told to sign the consent forms and completing the survey .the following instructions were given to the subjects -there are thirty questions with five choices from which you have to choose one that comes closest to your skill and task level and that theses questions must be answered honestly .they were also told that the true nature of this study is to examine the leadership qualities.

    Results

    The data analyzed for this experiment was based on the LCSS which measured leadership qualities between NCC and NON-NCC students. The ratings of theses students were then scored .these scores were then used to calculate the qualities of leader .mean ,standard deviation and Man Whitney -u test were calculated for the two groups .the data obtained from the two groups on S.D. is 11.13(NCC) and 15.43 for (NON-NCC) which displays variability between NCC and NON- NCC students in regard to leadership qualities .the mean for NCC is112.60 and NON-NCC students is 95.77, the standard error of mean for NCC is 2.03 and for NON-NCC is 2.82. Overall the means between NCC and NON-NCC exhibited significance and were detected in levels of an independent sample t- test .according to the data there was a large difference between NCC students in terms of leadership scale. As a a result ,the means between NCC and NON -NCC students reveals that the leadership qualities in NCC students are higher than the NON-NCC students .these results thus supports the hypothesis which stated that the leadership qualities among NCC students is more than the NON-NCC students.

    Discussion

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the students who participate in national cadet corps training activities possess more leadership qualities than the non national cadet corps students who do not take part in national cadet corp.

    Gliding, Micro lite Flying( generally ZENAIR CH 701 STOL AC) and attachment training with Airforce Stations/Establishments are the main activities. 100 Pipistrel Virus SW 80 on order.

    for the purpose of the survey an instrument in the form of Likert type scale was developed for assessing leadership qualities in the students. The questions basically covered the behaviour of individuals in various situations when working as a team. A major goal in developing the leadership and characteristics skill survey was that it was designed to assess the leadership of both national cadet corps students and non national cadet corps students.
    Cadets from SD boys Army wing wear khaki full sleeve shirt and trousers & cadets from JD wear khaki shirt & khaki shorts. Girl cadets from SW & JW both wear khaki full sleeve shirt and trousers. Cadets from SD boys Naval wing wear white half sleeve shirt and white trousers & JD boys wear half sleeve white shirt and white shorts. Girls from Naval wing SW & JW wear white half sleeve shirt and trousers. Cadets from SD boys Air wing wear light blue half sleeve shirts and trousers & JD cadets wear light blue half sleeve shirts and trousers. Girls from SW and JW wear light blue half sleeve shirts and trouser.

    Versions of the instruments were administered to a total of sixty subjects of different colleges .the responses of two groups in national cadet corps and non national cadet corps were analyzed separately .results of the study reported here shows us that the hypothesis of this study is very much supported by the data collected. as expected the participants of the study did show that the leadership qualities are more in national cadet corps students than non national cadet corps students .these results are thus supporting Reed w. Larsson's famous article of towards positive youth development which focused on extra co curricular activities helping in positive development of youth , at the same time participation in extra co curricular activities and community youth organization has been found to be co related with higher self esteem , control over ones life e.t.c. (Holland & Andre 1978). Eocles and barber (1999) research regarding participation in structured youth activities in tenth predicted positive changes.
    I am not sure why I joined NCC when I was in school. Actually, our Karate Sempai had just left and we were looking for an alternative extra curricular activity after school hours, when NCC was introduced for the first time in our school.

    Then there are studies by (Berger & luck man (1966) whose theories recognize that joining a group leads to socialization. Overall the previous research on leadership and extra co curricular activities participation literature supports the researchers present study of leadership qualities in national cadet corps students undergoing training in this youth organization who according to the hypothesis possess more leadership skills compared to the students who are not a part of this organization .

    In this study statistics such as mean, standard deviation and man Whitney-u test were calculated for the two groups data collected were analyzed. The data obtained from the two group's displays variability between national cadet corps students and non national cadet corps students with regard to leadership qualities.

    This centrally organised Naval Camp is conducted annually for selected Naval Wing Cadets. Boat pulling, semaphore, tent pitching, drill competitions are the main attraction of the camp. It is generally held at Naval Maritime Academy (NAMAC) at Visakhapatnam but started to be held at Karwar from 2014.

    Even the means calculated between the two groups exhibited significance and were detected in levels of an independent samples t- test. According to the data, there was a large difference between national cadet corps students and non national cadet corps students in terms of leadership scale as a result the means between national cadet corps and non- national cadet corps students reveals that the leadership qualities in national cadet corps students is higher than the non national cadet corps students thus rendering support to the present study on leadership.

    The possible limitation that this study had was a small size population, present study may not have shown more statistic support to this study if the number of participants would have been greater than thirty, in other words if there would have been greater number of subjects than probably the results would have been different .Also at the same time the result could have been altered owing to the fact that if the investigator would have done the survey in any rural area where there is hardly any awareness regarding organizations like national cadet corps i.e. in spite of having its unit in various villages students in villages do not come forward to join it but yet manage to go to local colleges and study well.

    This result which supports the hypothesis can be due to the fact the students who undergo a vigorous training in national cadet corps while attending the various camps go through lots of physical, mental endurance test which ultimately make them more emotionally strong and mature which in turn helps them to take responsibilities in a more matured way and thus they can face any kind of social situations where they need to interact with people coming from different backgrounds.

    A cadre of whole time lady officers (WTLO) with cadre strength 110 officers has been sanctioned in 1995. They are to be commissioned partly through departmental channel and partly through UPSC in a phased manner.

    another reason which also can be one of the reasons favoring the present study is that the level of passion to work as a team is the crux of organizations like defence, sports and national cadet corps therefore because of this sense of personal involvement in a team can be described as arising from the sense of responsibility that their uniform or their respective training officers entrust on them.

    Ethics

    The present study did not have any ethical concerns. The samples were basically students. The questions presented to them didn't involve any religious sentiments or gender issues, and the questionnaire was purely designed to test the person's leadership skills only. Thus, the students did not hesitate to give their response to the questions presented to them.

    Conclusion

    The hypothesis that national cadet corps students have more leadership qualities than the non national cadet corps students formulated by the researcher has been proved through the data collected. This shows that training in national cadet's corps does contribute significantly in developing leadership qualities in a person to an extent. however to make the research more reliable, valid and more significant the future research in this field should include a larger sample size and the investigator should not restrict himself to the cities but must try to reach even the rural areas where the students in some villages are also a part of this organization . At the same time a highly refined instrument of research should be used to assess the leadership skills. At the same time it is also suggested that the regular students who do not take part in extra co curricular activities must come forward as involvement in such activities helps a person in enhancing his or her personality.

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  • 1. www.ukessays.com/essays/education/comparative-study-of-leadership-between-ncc-students-education-essay.php
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  • 2. en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Cadet_Corps_(India)
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